Concerning would of disregarded women as being unfaithful

Concerning gender conventions, Daisy in “The Great Gatsby” and Honey in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” do not initially appear particularly subversive to conventional femininity. Indeed, Fitzgerald and Albee’s contemporary portrayal was one that embodied all the feminine stereotypes of feminine youth, clothing and the way in which women presents themselves.Fitzgerald uses Daisy as a representation of contemporary attitudes towards gender, championing stereotypically misogynistic views, ‘there was excitement in her voice that men who had cared for her found hard to forget.’ the way in which Daisy’s character adheres to the conventions is her dependence on the role of men in the novel. Daisy’s “Ethereal beauty” requires the connivance and protection of the male characters, whatever the cost of her moral identity and Tom,  To make matters worse, one even senses that Daisy, in fact, tried to kill Myrtle. Gatsby has a hard time admitting that the object of his love has, in fact, not merely hit and killed another person, but has fled the scene as well. Myrtle’s death by Gatsby’s great car is certainly no accident.  However Daisy challenges this as stereotypically women depend on men and Daisy does through depending on Tom for the wealth he has and the life he provides her; however she is hedonistic with her relationship with Gatsby. Daisy’s relationship is also unconvention as she is a married woman and social context of the time would of disregarded women as being unfaithful in marriage. In Sutherland.J, 2010. The Connell Guide to F.Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby”. 1st ed. London: Connell Guides, it states that “The men are “the world”; the women merely “it’s mistress”.”Albee uses Honey to represent contemporary attitudes towards gender and stereotypically misogynistic views, We know very little about Honey. We hear from Nick that her father was some type of minister (or evangelist) who amassed a considerable amount of money. We know that Honey and Nick were childhood “sweethearts” and that she apparently became pregnant before marriage. Alike Daisy, Honey seems to conform to contemporary attitudes towards gender in her appearance and modest clothing. Yet adheres to the conventions of femininity by her dependence on the role of me, in the novel Honey is either fey, childlike, or drunk in almost every scene. In view of the fact that she refuses to face the reality of childbearing, it therefore follows that her actions are those of an adult child, and her husband, Nick, will often treat her as one by trying to protect her from certain language, from sexual references, and by constantly overseeing her actions. Her childlikeness is further emphasized by her habit of gurgling, being obtuse to the reality of the situation around her, and ultimately, by curling up in a fetal position when she is drunk and peeling the labels off liquor bottles. In relation to conventional women characters and how they adhere conventional gender stereotypes, the comparison of the ways in which both Authors have constructed the characters of Daisy and Honey seems to be suggesting that women are not genuine and are forced to not be themselves and create a false version, a pure version of themselves in order to hide their true intentions.Concerning gender conventions, Myrtle  in “The Great Gatsby” and Martha in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf”  particularly subvert conventional femininity. For in spite of the fact that, Fitzgerald and Albee’s contemporary portrayal embodies all the feminine stereotypes, however they extinguish these represented through the presentation of the “Unconventional woman” who is explored by the Emancipation of women- social and sexual freedom, in the times the books were set. During the 1920’s when “The Great Gatsby” was set women had a new lease of freedom, women wore clothing more convenient for activity and stopped wearing long skirts and corsets; Divorce was made easier and the number of divorces doubled – women were not content just to stay at home and put up with bad husbands; But most women were still housewives and were not as free as their men. In addition to this, women in the 1950’s were different as at this point in time a Woman’s priorities were reverted back Housework and family life became a woman’s principle route to fulfilment and achievement. But the advertiser’s image wasn’t the whole story, in fact, “22% of married women continued to work after the war, and the number increased throughout the 1950s”.Myrtle Wilson – Tom’s lover, whose lifeless husband George owns a run-down garage in the valley of ashes. Myrtle herself possesses a fierce vitality and desperately looks for a way to improve her situation. Unfortunately for her, she chooses Tom, who treats her as a mere object of his desire. Myrtle subverts stereotypical feminine values as she represents the Emancipation of Women. The idea of social and sexual freedom is new to the era in which “The Great Gatsby”. Even in death, Myrtle’s physicality and vitality are emphasized. In fact, the image is pretty overtly sexual –  “Michaelis and this man reached her first but when they had torn open her shirtwaist still damp with perspiration, they saw that her left breast was swinging loose like a flap and there was no need to listen for the heart beneath. The mouth was wide open and ripped at the corners as though she had choked a little in giving up the tremendous vitality she had stored so long” notice how it’s Myrtle’s breast that’s torn open and swinging loose, and her mouth ripped open at the corners. This echoes Nick’s view of Myrtle as a woman and mistress, nothing more – even in death she’s objectified.Martha is a domineering, forceful, and earthy person. She best characterizes herself, when she refers to herself as an “earth mother” who constantly wants to get at “the meat of the matter.”. As a matter of fact Martha being the “Earth mother” is seen as an archetype, the concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis. She freely sprinkles her speeches with curse words and obscene words, remarks, and gestures. She openly makes known her sexual attraction toward the youthful Nick and delights in the concept of the game “Hump the Hostess.” During the course of drama, Martha virtually ignores the presence of Honey. From the opening of the play until the final scenes and particularly until George “kills” their son, Martha dominates the action. Basically Martha is a domineering, forceful, and earthy person. She best characterizes herself, when she refers to herself as an “earth mother” who constantly wants to get at “the meat of the matter.” She freely sprinkles her speeches with curse words and obscene words, remarks, and gestures. She openly makes known her sexual attraction toward the youthful Nick and delights in the concept of the game “Hump the Hostess.” During the course of drama, Martha virtually ignores the presence of Honey.Martha delights in letting people know that George is a “flop” that he has not taken over the history department as she had expected (in fact, Martha uses the word flop to also apply to Nick when he can’t make it in bed). Martha uses the fact that George has not lived up to her expectations as a reason to demean him. She also believes that George desires her to castigate him — that he married her partly for that reason. Maternity also play a huge part in stereotypical femininity. In “The Great Gatsby” Daisy’s daughter Pammy, only appears in rather briefly in two chapter where Daisy makes little to no fuss over her, connoting that Daisy doesn’t care for motherhood. Therefor subverting gender roles. During Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Nick is blind to the fact that his wife is frightened to have children. Basically, he treats her as a child. He is constantly concerned about the nature of George’s language in front of Honey (ironically, he doesn’t make any protestations about Martha’s equally strong language). And whereas he will openly flirt with Martha and dance sensually with her, he is offended if George makes even the slightest reference to Honey’s sexuality. Honey’s fear of pregnancy became of her hysterical pregnancy where she “Puffed up”, it makes Honey’s feelings toward motherhood a lot more conflicted, and turns her into a more complex character. In the most recent version of the play, her childlessness isn’t explained. Perhaps, we’re meant to believe it’s just because she’s slim-hipped and possibly barren. However In earlier versions of the play, Albee had it revealed that Honey had been taking birth control pills, showing the extent of her fear of childbearing. Regarding the connection to conventional or unconventional women characters and how they subvert/adhere to conventional gender stereotypes, the comparison of the ways in which both Authors have constructed the characters suggest that conventional femininity is comprised of behaviour and personality; clothing and appearance. Yet in the Novels the women’s clothing and appearance does not match with their behaviour and personality. Critic Judith Fetterley wrote about The Great Gatsby and how Fitzgerald treated women in the novel, Fetterley wrote that she feels it is “another American novel centred on hostility to women…”  Suggesting that maybe no women have to create a facade in order to live in the worlds that their books are fabricated upon. In both novels the sensuous and sensual allure of women is a major factor, yet there is hostility towards ‘The new woman’.When it comes to Men and the portrayal of Conventional Male values in both of the Novel, Tom Buchanan, in Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby” and Nick in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” by Albee  initially appear physically adhere to conventional masculinity.Tom Buchanan – Fitzgerald describes him as hulking, hyper-masculine, aggressive, and super-rich – he is The Great Gatsby’s chief representative of the idea of old money, and one of the book’s least sympathetic characters. He is Gatsby’s rival for Daisy’s love, but he is also caught up in an affair with Myrtle Wilson that proves fatal for many involved. “He had changed since his New Haven years. Now he was a sturdy, straw haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining, arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggressively forward. Not even the effeminate swank of his riding clothes could hide the enormous power of that body—he seemed to fill those glistening boots until he strained the top lacing and you could see a great pack of muscle shifting when his shoulder moved under his thin coat. It was a body capable of enormous leverage—a cruel body.” Tom is established from the outset as masculine, aggressive, and, most importantly, dangerous. We also get a much more complete physical description of him than we ever get of Gatsby or Nick.In “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” ultimately, Nick, then is seen as a male conformist who is caught up in a non-conformist atmosphere (George and Martha’s house and party) where even his physical attributes fail him and thus, he finds himself in an inferior position with which he cannot cope. Alike Tom, Nick is stereotypically masculine in the way in which his looks conform to stereotypes, such is when Martha is asking about Nick’s past and he reveals how he used to box and partake in other sports,”Oh! Oh, yes… I was a… quarterback… but I was much more… adept… at boxing”, Martha then goes on to comment “Oh, I think that’s very nice” in a private conversation with Nick regarding his physique.  Nick is best characterized by his ambitions. While it is true that he is genuinely fond of his wife (he and Honey had known each other since childhood and were expected to marry), he did marry her partly because of her money, which would abet his ambitions. Nick’s ambition is attested to by the fact that he even bothers to come to George and Martha’s after-the-party party. As Martha points out later, Nick is fully aware that Martha is the daughter of the president of the university, and he certainly did not chase her around the kitchen because of mad passionate desire. Jay Gatsby – The title character and protagonist of the novel, Gatsby is a fabulously wealthy young man. Nick first comes to know him as an incredibly wealthy, mysterious man who throws lavish parties, but we eventually learn his background: a boy from humble origins who is desperate to win back the love of a rich woman, Daisy, and loses everything in his last attempt to win her over. However Gatsby is labeled as an unconventional male in the novel due to the lack of knowledge about him throughout, the character of ‘Jay Gatsby’ is solely based up the rumours and the facade created around him.A convention man seems to have his whole life in strict order, a wealthy background (Old money), A beautiful wife (yet a few mistresses aswell) and many more factors to makeup for this perfect man. Meaning Gatsby’s illegal obtainment of wealth meaning he represents new money along with the fact that Gatsby is pining after another mans wife makes him unconventional. In Chapter Eight, when Gatsby leaves Nick’s house after having had breakfast with him, Nick calls out to him: “They’re a rotten crowd… You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together” this is a crucial moment in the novel. Nick’s judgement about Gatsby has been swinging to and fro about Gatsby- in Chapter Seven he is wanting “to get up and slap him on the back” after he silences Tom in an argument; a few pages later, when they meet after the accident, he decides he thoroughly dislikes him. Now he finally sides with a nonplussed Gatsby, telling him he is worth more than the “old money” types like Tom who hate and Patronise him.At the opening of the play, Albee presents in “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” George as Martha’s “house boy” — someone who will open the door, mix her a drink, listen to her tirades, and be her companion and her “doormat.” During the years since George has taught at the college, he has apparently made no effort to take over and run things. Instead, he has been seemingly content with his life as it is. In fact, at one point Martha tells him that he “married her for it — that is, to be treated exactly as she treats him. George’s attitude towards women is not contemporary, this is due to the fact that he does not respect women,  on two separate occasions George refers to women in a demeaning manner, firstly calling Honey “Angel tits” and secondly referring to Martha as “Monkey nipples”. The exact nature of George’s background is either conjectured or unknown. If we assume that the novel he wrote (if indeed, he did write one) was based on biographical fact, then George’s earlier life could have been bizarre — that is, he could have been the young boy who “killed his mother with a shotgun” and then later, while driving along a country road with “a learner’s permit in his pocket and his father on the front seat to his right, he swerved the car to avoid a porcupine and drove straight into a large tree.” George told Nick the story of the boy as though it were a remembrance, and said that it took place thirty years earlier. Since George is forty-six years old, this could be evidence that points to George as the subject of the story, and it would suggest why George has never attempted to force himself into the forefront of activity. This links to Gatsby in relation to his past being unknown and how it has affected their futures and the people they have become.ProblemsNearly every early twentieth-century American social bias is represented in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925). We see such bias in narrator Nick Carraway’s ruminations on class and on women, in the rumors of criminality surrounding the newly rich Jay Gatsby, and, most explicitly, in the racism, classism, anti-Semitism, and anti-immigrant sentiment espoused by Tom Buchanan, whose wealth, race, and gender position him as the voice of the dominant ideology. At the Buchanan home, Nick meets Daisy’s girlhood friend from Louisville, golf champion Jordan Baker, with whom he carries on an amiable involvement throughout most of the novel. Following one of Gatsby’s parties, Jordan reveals to Nick that Daisy and Gatsby were engaged before the war, and together she and Nick mediate a renewal of that courtship. Through Nick, we learn some of Gatsby’s background; it is a narrative that highlights Gatsby’s important relationships with men, including yachtsman Dan Cody; gangster Meyer Wolfsheim; Gatsby’s West Egg “border,” Klipspringer; and Henry C. Gatz, Gatsby’s father, who comes from the Midwest after Gatsby’s death. Both Gatsby and Daisy’s and Nick and Jordan’s relationships end in tragedy when, following a confrontation with Tom, Tom’s mistress Myrtle is killed by the driver (Nick believes Daisy) of Gatsby’s car and, believing that Gatsby was the driver, Myrtle’s husband murders Gatsby. Critics have regarded Jordan Baker as one of the characters least deserving of scholarly attention; Many critics have understood Nick’s use of conventionally masculine language to describe Jordan’s body (“hard,” “muscular,” that of “a young cadet”) and his admiration of her conventionally masculine attributes (she is athletic, con dent, and “self-sufficient”) only in terms of his homosexuality, yet clearly there is evidence to suggest that Jordan has no erotic interest in men. Readers overlook at critical moments in Nick’s Developing Relationship with Jordan, assuming his attraction to her is, in a sense, a physical one, reactive only of his own sexuality. Yet Fitzgerald’s representation of Jordan draws from the common discourse of sexual inversion—including that of the “mannish woman,” the “invert,” and the “third sex” of nineteenth-century sociologists such as Krafft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis, as well as the developing narrative of the “threatening lesbian.” The character of the lesbian gure in popular representations of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century illuminates Fitzgerald’s representation of Jordan. However it is Albee used men and women equally in ‘Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” as there is a balanced perspective, There is no single narrator, the story is explore through the words of each character, all perspectives are viewed.


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