Cloud on. Cloud computing covers servers as well












Cloud Computing

Pankaj Fnu

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MG-800 Strategic Management

Monroe College










computing is very convenient of running apps on a shared data center. Cloud
computing is delivering the database, storage, computing services, software,
analytics and so on. Cloud computing covers servers as well as the network
infrastructure. Furthermore, researchers are finding the best way to make work
more efficient through continuous research and advancement in technology and
cloud computing is the recent trending business in which the companies are
investing and would like to provide the services in order to make more

are two types of cloud computing

Community cloud computing where several organizations have similar necessities
and they always look to share infrastructure

The Private cloud computing is the traders who their private necessities and
they do not kind to share their infrastructure.

main goal of this paper is the issues and challenges of cloud computing and why
it is looking like a future of IT industry in the United States.

In this research
paper, I would like to discuss about the challenges and issues of cloud
providers and consumers. How cloud computing is the future of IT industry in
the U.S market? How is cloud built? What is the difference between service
oriented computing and grid computing? Last, but not the least, I will
highlight the cloud interoperability issue and substantial research it





of Research Project: Background information and Significance of Research

It goes
without saying that cloud computing has been becoming the most developing field
in all over the world. It is the internet based development and providing
services for which consumers do not need to buy any software or investment in
any expensive services.

cloud computing service models are

SaaS (Software as a service)

PaaS (Platform as a service)

(Infrastructure as a service).

paradigm shift is taking place in the economy due to then advancement in
technology and further advancement in IT businesses in America. Besides the
potential savings, one of the main drives of adopting an ERP would be technical
and operation integration of business function” (Elragal & Haddara, 2012). The
term cloud is used as a symbol for the internet. All the costs associated with
setting up a hardware, database, cooling systems, power supply. It can be pass
on to third party vendor and consumer is only liable to pay for the services
they use. Furthermore, Cloud computing is lots of common computers networked
together and operating together. Because, serve number of operators with
different needs. Cloud computing applications are raising popularity because of
their utility model and cannot explain how much reliable it is. “Cloud
computing platforms are enabling new and complex business models in 2017 than
many analysts predicted”. (Columbus, 2017). Moreover, it is cannot be denied
that cloud is transforming across the worldwide and it is accepted by many
industries. Cloud computing is defined as “Cloud computing really comes into
focus only when you think about what IT always needs: a way to increase capacity
or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure,
training new personnel, or licensing new software” (Bill Martin).

Statement of Research
Objectives Including Relevant Questions or Issues to Be Addressed

describe the benefits of cloud computing and advancement of technology in the
American market.

identify the overall working of cloud and its impact over economy, individual
life and organizations.

analysis the major issues and challenges faced by the service owners and
seekers in this industry.

compare different service models of cloud computing to provide clear knowledge
regarding how the industry works.

estimate the expenditure and benefits that one can get by using the cloud
computing services.

of Theoretical Framework

From last
decade, cloud domain has grown rapidly and the expectations of the customers
and service seekers tending to grow monthly. One of the researcher said that
“cloud computing ranked as the top technical priority of CIOs in 2011”
(Gartner, 2011). This research document benefits the customers and those who
need the service for understanding the cloud computing market and its impact on
the economy. The research will also let the readers know about how they can
save money and get service an efficient manner. Moreover, the main objective is
to find out whether this platform is save and when questions rises of privacy. Researchers
has explained that “This makes it the vital time to decide the future of CLOUD
computing”. (Schubert & Jeffery, 2012).












Figure 1. Theoretical framework usually
adopted by small enterprises.

federal government have almost invested $18 billion dollars for using cloud
computing services. Big investments are made into this business area and the
one who understand its importance knows it value and credibility and future of
technological advancement. The takeaways from cloud computing will be
formalized metrics, Strategic vision, proper governance, perfect communication,
risk management, vetting plan and implementation plan.

This method
of research creates a firm foundation for advancing knowledge. This paper also
aims at reviewing the present and current situation of the cloud computing
industry. The main subject in this research are customers and the organizations.

 “The process in which an innovation is
communicated through certain channels over time within particular social
system” (Rogers, 2003).  

Computing Models

(Software as a Service):

It is a
single application service with multi-tenancy where cloud consumers release
their application of the hosting environment and that can be accessed through
network domains.

(Platform as a Service):

It is the
service where it allows consumers to design and make their cloud applications
directly on the PaaS cloud. SaaS is the completed application hosted on the
cloud network and PaaS is platform to develop any application for the

(Infrastructure as a Service):

and storage are made available over the network in order to create a
virtualization model.

Review and Relevancy to Research Topic

This Literature
review and analysis is based on the qualitative approach and method of this
research is simply divided into small sections like



Quality appraisal

Result formulation.

purpose of this research in explained in the previous content and to justify
the research scholarly articles were taken into consideration. The literature
such as Newspaper articles were eliminated. The reason behind choosing this
topic was the growing demand of cloud computing and hence to gain more depth
articles were chosen from the google scholar. Because of that, the database and
reading it quality check was made in order to keep the most relevant articles
and studies and references to them are provided at the end. Moreover, the
articles were divided taken into consideration based on my research if it
answers my research question and that was decided from abstract and how well
the author has described it. Hence after completing the quality appraisal the
remaining literature was once again reviewed thoroughly in order to identify the
various risk regarding the security and other solutions. Out of all of the
above sections the most important of all is credibility of the author and the
data that has been provided in it. The screening in total includes 10 scholar
papers which were taken into consideration in order to generate authentic data
and thus.

Factors: These comprise external factors that have impact on the cloud
computing adoption processes. These external factors from the outside social
environment in which the enterprise operates.

 These external factors are:


industry standards institutes




service broker.





            I would like discuss about the
research method of the hypothesis used in this research is based on the
secondary data in which scholarly articles are taken into consideration based
on the information required. While screening through the articles one thing
which included the expected benefits from the cloud computing includes: speed
of business communication, efficient coordination and better C2C, B2C and also
B2G communication became more efficient. In spite of having all the benefits,
which makes work easier “firm do not have confidence in cloud computing system
as it is new to them” (Buyya, 2009).

Relative advantage will be related with the adoption of computing. H2. Null
hypotheses could be possibly complexity negatively correlated with the adoption
of cloud computing. H3. Reliability has a positively related to cost cutting,
ease of use, collaboration with SME’s and ease in adoption. H4. Security and
privacy improvements are positively related reliability and dependency and
negatively correlated to afraid of less acceptance with the poor privacy
concepts. H5.  One of the writer said
that “Compatibility refers to positive acceptance of cloud computing module
“(Roger, 2003).

think the following hypotheses for the adoption of cloud computing





and compatibility.


advantage of cloud computing makes technology efficient enough to use and
currently cloud computing is the most revenue generating business but
complexity of its model makes innovation weak. Complexity of an innovation acts
as a barrier to its implementation. Moreover, reliability and security are the
value propositions in the cloud computing module as reliability increases the
dependency and improvements in security and privacy leads to safer accept of
cloud computing. Last hypothesis of the research is the key substance of the
innovation and that is compatibility and hence based on these five hypotheses
it was made clear that cloud computing is the best fit in today’s world and
also demands and revenues will be increasing in the near future.

Analysis and Interpretation

            In data analysis and
interpretation, depth analysis of the data collected was done in order to
figure the exact data required to support my research. Additional sub-set
analysis was done on the articles which were collected and were related to
quantitative data sets in order to come out with a clear idea of how many
people are aware about this technology and its module and more about how often
it is used by an individual or any organization. Highlighting some key issues
in the article is about research based on secondary data is not a reliable
research as it does not connect the researcher with the actual market. Although
the articles which are taken into consideration are reviewed and based on the necessary
information provided are taken into consideration. Likewise proving the
hypotheses data and factors taken into consideration are the ones I was
interested in gaining an in-depth idea. Hence, articles which proved to be
having this source of hypotheses were on the major side and other scholarly
sources were scanned in order to gain the information which support my
hypotheses data in order to support my research study. Verifying the available
data, “we can reach on one clear idea that cloud computing is a massive
developing industry not only in United States but worldwide and keeping a foot
in this industry would be the most advantageous move towards earning huge
amount of money by just providing efficient servers and reliable services”
(Bauwens, 2010).

The best
thing I can interpret from this research is that not only data sensors and data
processors are getting connected but also cloud is becoming a place where
people are now a day storing human intelligence, relying on even more powerful
search engines and data mining algorithms. In addition to that many markets can
be affected indirectly by could shift effect and identifying this indirect
effect can help IT and purchasing manager to get them a best value out of new
expenditure and also good security against risk. Example: instead of buying
operating system for each user they will tend to provide images of the same
with the use to containers. Many of the users in the industry except having
technical knowledge tend to pursue image of cloud computing as storing data or
sharing data but this research will help to interpret the actual image and idea
of cloud computing and its advantages and disadvantages. While in the United
States all the big companies like Facebook, Google, Amazon etc. are based on the
cloud server technologies and most famous cloud based applications are Google+,
Hangout and many more. Hence, cloud computing is the future of development and

of Major Findings and Results

            After several readings, I came to a
conclusion that cost saving and cost reduction are not the most important
factor in US market for small business to accept cloud based services but “Ease
of use” and “convenience” are the main priorities that lead small companies to
accept cloud based services. Moreover, after cloud computing revolutionized the
IT industry in US market even Federal government came up with the idea of
Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program) which was to standardize
security services and streamline assessments. The motivation behind this
service was to avoid duplication of effort across agencies. This is the major
step towards development for the US government and also amount invested in this
would lead to huge amount of profit and kick start to cloud based services in
order to set up a new business based on cloud computing. Further, based on the
hypotheses the major findings are organized under following headings:
compatibility, relative advantage, complexity, reliability. Discussing about
these factors compatibility often refers to as consistency and for service
providers the main issue starts with compatibility where acceptance of cloud
computing among the customers is low if it fails to satisfy customer need and
customer demand. Compatibility is the main issue in the sectors like banking
and aerospace. Next would be relative advantage and when speaking in general it
is said that “before buying the potential adopters tend to analyze what
specific type of relative advantage is important to them” (Roger, 2003). The
most important advantage of this technology is convenience and because of that
users tend to accept this technology. After figuring out the advantages and
while the time of buying the most important thing comes into the mind of
customer is complexity, the degree to which cloud computing is difficult to
use. While complexity not being an important factor in decision making but data
analysis from the research suggest that it is the potential effort required to
adapt cloud computing. At last after all the analysis reliability check is made
in order to find out how much a person can rely on it and based on that final
decision is made.

Based on Systematic Analysis

The main
focus of this research was to gain the in-depth knowledge if advancement of
cloud computing in US market and for that the main questions taken into
consideration were security issues, awareness, how the model works and what is
the acceptance level in the market, how often people or business owners relate
themselves with using cloud computing technology. Analysis criteria and
evaluation was done based on the scholarly articles and considering the five
factors of hypotheses and putting all the data together it was made clear which
hypotheses supported the research and which was the one negatively correlated.
Based on the articles reviewed and considering the factors the analysis was
done on 1 to 5 scale as which factor was most important (5 being the most
important) according to the users and this was figured out from different
articles and their research.

and relative advantage goes side by side more the complex model so more
benefits but when customers seek for better services they tend to first look
after less complex model rather than looking after advantage. Data security
being the most important thing is the last stage in finalizing the process as
we all know “online shopping through internet is gaining more attention due to
high security and ease of use” (Eri, Islam & Daud, 2011) and so the cloud
computing services.

Weakness / Limitations of Research

            This is primarily conducted based
on secondary data. Hence, the information which is retrieved from the data is
based on different authors point of view. Moreover, each author having their
own point of view makes it difficult to conclude the research study and
questions related to it. Research based on secondary data do not help to fetch
the actual data because one to one interaction is limited. Also, IT does not
want to go extra miles to host servers as they think they will have to bear
business anger if things not working as per the projection. While talking about
the customer requirements and needs customization may not be possible and
therefore it is difficult to rely on specific factors. Awareness level of cloud
computing is increasing in the US market but still majority of the crowd is not
able to figure out its complexity and hence try to avoid the online services
and prefer to go for basic and old installation based services available on
flash drives, disk etc.


            Cloud computing market is
acceptable market in all over the world and lots of big organizations already
started using the same and also it is one of the most helpful platform in
today’s world and also the most efficient way to achieve the objective of
reaching out all the clients at same time providing same efficiency level of
service to them. For making this market more efficient on a broader level. In
one scholar paper researchers said that “it is necessary to clarify the factors
that explain this adoption” (Low, Chen and Wu, 2011). One concern is complexity
and another concern is compatibility. Hence, gaining advantage over these
factors can lead America’s market to achieve great heights in cloud computing
and other advancement in innovation. At the niche level firms can begin by
implementing cloud computing services into business through Customer
relationship management and Enterprise resource planning.

 There are main open research issues in this
domain is:


machine migration

Dealing with large data


for Future Research

includes rebuilding the handling data movement, managing the running
application and application. Most of the clouds are opaque to their users until
there is an access issue. It is the substance that allows to bridge the gap
between moving applications between clouds. The issue with interoperability is
the data sharing between two clouds and this field is having large scope of
research as while increasing cloud technology interoperability issue have not
been touched or researched in order to gain complete efficiency and as told by
famous author “interoperability has not been a huge focus around the quickly
emerging cloud computing space” (Linthicum, 2010). This includes rebuilding the
application, managing the running application and handling data movement. Most
of the clouds are opaque to their users and users are fine with the same until
there is an access issue. Hence, there is huge scope of research in this area
and while with the increasing use of cloud computing the betterment in this will
bring a whole new level of cloud services.



to cloud computing and mentioning problems and research questions which needs
to be concentrated in the following research. The following paragraph discusses
about the cloud computing and its types which is used by the individuals and
corporates and discuss the framework which is used on daily basis. The objectives
of the research are discussed and its Significance in order to quote down the
importance of the same and how it will be helpful in the further studies.


computing and its models are discussed in order to get the broader perspective
of the research and get the in-depth knowledge of the cloud computing services.
Hypothesis is discussed in order to define the advantages and disadvantages
correlation between the components of the research. This paragraph includes the
method of research and how data is collected and verifies in order to justify
the research objectives.



but not the least, the results from the analysis are discussed and are analyzed
in a systematic way based on each component and its importance. Further
defining the importance leads to the conclusion of the research where results
are quoted down and further opportunities of research is mentioned in order to
gain more command over this technology by studying in further detail.





















Elragal, A., Haddara, M.
(2012). The Future of ERP Systems: Look Backward Before Moving Forward.
Procedia Technol.  retrieved from:

Columbus (2017). Roundup of cloud
computing forecasts. Retrieved from:

Schubert. L, & Jeffery. K
(2012). Advances in clouds: Research in future cloud computing. Retrieved from:

Gartner. (2011). cloud computing:
the new strategic weapon. Retrieved from:

Roger. (2003). Cloud
computing: issues and challenges. Retrieved from:

Varghese, B., & Buyya, R.
(2018). Next generation cloud computing: New trends and research
directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 79,
849-861. Retrieved from:

Roger. (2003). Cloud computing:
issues and challenges. Retrieved from:

Bauwens. M, (2010). A spiritual
interpretation of cloud computing and network consciousness. Retrieved from:

Linthicum. D. (2010).
The data interoperability challenge for cloud computing. Info world. Retrieved from:

Yulihasri, Md. Aminul Islam, and Ku Amir Ku Daud. “Factors that Influence
Customers’ Buying Intention on Shopping Online.” International Journal of
Marketing Studies 3, no. 1 (2011). Retrieved from: https://

Wu. M., Chen, Y., Low, C., (2011).
Understanding the determinants of cloud computing adoption. Retrieved from:



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