Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which is part of the human gastrointestinal microbiota 1.
When there is an imbalance in the intestine which means the normal bacteria of the intestine become disadvantaged and clostridium difficile is advantaged, we observe a sharp increase in the clostridium difficile’s growth rate resulting in the production of two types of toxins which are responsible for mild to moderate clostridium difficile infections by attacking the lining of intestine. 23page 322 paragraph 1 4
Clostridium difficile infection symptoms include watery diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite 5. It is also considered as a nosocomial infection and it can be prevented by good personal hygiene and the contaminated surfaces should be cleaned thoroughly as the bacterium can form spores who can survive under extreme conditions for a long period of time and, so it is easier to be transported. 6
Fecal microbiota transplantation has be proven to be a safe and efficient treatment for the C.difficile infection. The procedure includes collecting stool from a screened healthy individual which will be transplanted to the colon of the person with recurrent C.difficile infections. 7 8 The aim of the transplantation is to reintroduce to the patient healthy microbiota, so the patient’s variety of bacteria will be returned to normal and the C.difficile bacterium colonization will be restricted. 9 There are no contradictions about this treatment as it has also been used safely to children 10 and elderly 11.
There is also evidence that probiotics can be an effective prevention for the C.difficile infection. They are live non-pathogenic microorganisms who are usually included in products such as yogurt or dietary supplements. 12 Probiotics work in a similarly to fecal transplantation. They contain a healthy variety of microorganisms which help balance the normal and harmful bacteria in human body when the first ones are disadvantaged usually due to antibiotics. 13 14 The short-term use of probiotics have been proved to be safe and efficacious however continued investigations are still required. 15 16 17