Climate of the hills and mountains, experiencing the

refers to the average of the weather in terms of a means and its variability
over a certain period of a time scale. Climate is what you except and weather
is what you get.  Climate in a narrow (IPCC, 2001)sense is usually the “average
of weather” or more rigorously as the statistical description in terms of the
means and variability of relevant quantity over a period of time ranging from
months to thousands or millions of years (IPCC, climate change, 2012).

According to the NASA,”Climate change
refers to the any long term change in earth’s climate or in the climate of a
region or city. Climate change is the change in the usual weather found in a
place. This could be change in how much rain a place usually gain in a year or
it could be a place usual temperature for a month or a season.

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  United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC), in its Article 1, defines “climate
change” as: “a change of climate which is attributed directly or
indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global
atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed
over comparable time periods.”

Climate change is happening and
will continue to happen due to ongoing and increasing the concentration of
green house gas in the atmosphere. Climate change is one of the biggest threats to the
planet earth. Anthropogenic green house gas emission have increased since
the pre-industrial era and driven largely by population growth and development
activity. The earth’s atmosphere is warming, faster than it probably ever has.
The planet has experiencing its impacts on biodiversity, freshwater resources
and local livelihood.  

 The earth’s
atmosphere is warming, faster than it probably ever has. The planet has
experiencing its impacts on biodiversity, freshwater resources and local
livelihood. In some case they are changing quicker than our limitation to adapt.

Rural communities of the hills and mountains,
experiencing the impact of climate change on water resources such as drying of
water sources, ground water depletion, irregular rainfall, high intensity of
rainfall leading to high runoff and less infiltration. This effect has
adversely affected the livelihood of the local people (Practical action Nepal,

According to the National Plan
of Nepal (2005) 72% of total population has access to drinking water. Around
95.9% of water is used for agriculture, 3.8% for domestic purpose and only
about 0.3% for industry. As Nepal is an agricultural country about 70% of population
are engaged in agriculture for their livelihood (NCVST, 2009).Hydrology of Nepal
is monsoon driven,  about 85% of rainfall
occurs from June to September. The monsoon rain cannot be stored due lack of
storage projects for irrigation and other purposes and heavy withdrawal of
ground water during lean season has depleted ground water reservoir. These
aspects have caused scarcity of water to many sectors.  Out of 2.64 million hectors 18 % of land are
cultivated land cover, only 43% has access to irrigation facilities .70%
irrigated water is obtained in monsoon season and 20% and10% in winter and
spring season respectively.

Adaptation is the
adjustment in natural or human systems in response to the actual or expected
climate stimuli or their effects which moderates harm or exploits beneficial
opportunities (IPCC, 2007).

Adaptive Capacity is the
ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability
and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of
opportunities, or to cope with the consequence.

Adaptation is adjustment in ecological, social or
economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and the
effects or impacts. This term refers to change in processes, practices or
structures to moderate or offset potential damage or to take advantages of
opportunities associated with changes in climate. It involves adjustment to
reduce the vulnerability of communities regions or activities to climate change
and variability. Adaptation is important to climate change issue in two ways-
one relating to assessment of impacts and vulnerabilities, the other of the
development and evaluation of response options. The preparation of the National
Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is the first official initiative for
mainstreaming the adaptation into national policies and actions for addressing
the adverse impacts of the climate change and reducing the vulnerability to
climate stimuli including extreme events in Nepal


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