CHAPTER have been an infinite journey for cognitive

 

CHAPTER
1

THE
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

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Introduction

            Students play a crucial role in the society. They serve
as the foundation of the future generations. A student’s main purpose is to
study and acquire information to contribute to self-growth and be able to share
knowledge to others. Other than home, the easiest way to learn is going to
school. Schools are institutions made specifically for learning. Memory
retention is very essential in learning especially in situations when you have
to recall a specific lesson for recitation or the homework that the teacher
gave before leaving the school premises.

            In
the past, where there’s little or almost no modes of transportation available,
students walk their way to their respective schools even if it’s miles away.
But thanks to the innovative emergence of alternative means, different modes of
transportation are now accessible to everyone, especially students.

            As
time flies, more and more vehicles (both private and public) now occupy the
streets of the Philippines, specifically in Manila. CNN Philippines (2015)
reported Manila topping the longest minute spent in commuting survey conducted
by a GPS-based navigation app called Waze and named it as a city that has the
“worst traffic on Earth”. This issue does not only apply to the workers but for
the students also who commute on a regular basis to go to their respective
schools or universities.

            Not
only does traffic and other modes of transportation hindrances can affect
student’s academic performance, this study seek to find out if there is a
relationship between the respondent’s home distance and memory retention.

Theoretical
Framework

            Several theories have been used to understand how the
memory functions. As well as how these people affects physically and
emotionally because several phenomena.

Theory
on How Memory Functions

Scientists don’t entirely grasp how
the memory organizes. They can’t predict what occurs while recalling a memory. The
brain’s organization and storage of memories have been an infinite journey for
cognitive researchers for decades but have enough theories to formulate
educated guesses regarding the subject.

According to Mohs (2007), the process
of memory starts with encoding, then progress its way to storage and finally,
retrieval. Formation of memory begins specifically through sensory and
perception, and requires paying attention.

            It
will be then stored in short term memory which is known to have small
capacities. Essential learning may be transported to long term memory,
especially when used frequently. Long term memory is known to store unlimited
memories that make it easier to recall when needed. Experts find difficulty in identifying
the difference between true forgetting and failed retrieval of specific
information stored in the long term memory.

 

Theory
about the Relationship between Short term memory and Long term memory

According to Alison Preston, upgrading
short term memory to long term memory need the help of time have to be
unforgettable for it to become permanent or stay longer in a person’s memory.
Memories have different values.

As memories combine in the storage of
memory it will undergo changes, the longer memories are, the more it becomes
blurry. But if one event have other connections to newer memories, there is a
possibility that these memories will stay longer and still become intact inside
the memory storage.

The process of transferring short term
to long term memory and spreading information through the neurons depends on
the hippocampus (Preston, 2007). The movement of neurons is responsible for
filtering the memories being pushed inside the memory storage. If the neuron
can communicate with another neuron, then there is a possible way for the
memory to have the unforgettable factor and become long term after being in the
short term area. Having the same information on memory to another memory can
help recalling the other one. As time passes, the systems supporting the cells
will become brittle. A person may remember a particular memory but not as clear
as before.

To prove this idea, Preston set old
people who developed dementia or Alzheimer’s disease as an example of memories
fading away through time. There are many ways to prevent this kind of
situations. One important way is to have a good amount of sleep, water and
exercise. Drinking supplements like vitamins to strengthen memory can also
help. Having a good and healthy lifestyle can affect the cells inside a
person’s brain to function well and be able to restore more memories.

Theory of Forgetting

            Why
do people forget their past memories? Many studies are conducted regarding this
topic and different theories have been made such as fading caused by time and
the other is that the memory somehow failed to be retrieved. Experts developed
a theory about forgetting short and long term memory.

The brain’s capacity finds it
difficult to grasp small details at once as suggested by the displacement
theory. The old memories decay and replaced by the newer ones. According to
Murdocks (1962) the short term memory fades due to replacement by the newer
ones or decays because of staying too long over a period of time.

            However,
interference theory says that long term memory can be interfered by the other
memories so it will obliterate the original path of one particular memory.
That’s why doubt sometimes occur when recalling a past memory from a long time
ago. Because of this the information from the original memory will become
edited and not have an assurance. There are two ways of interference that can
cause forgetting. One is proactive interference, where you can learn other
informations because it will flourish other informations that is inside your
mind. The second one is the retroactive interference. Where you will fully
forgot your memory because of your current memory. For example when you have a
new phone number, you will have to memorize it, and because you have another
number, you will not need to remember your past number. It will be forgotten
because you created a new one.

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