3. Research Methodology
3.1. Research design
In this study the qualitative and quantitative
research approach, particularly descriptive sample survey was select for the
appropriateness with cross sectional of the study. To analyze the data obtained
from questionnaires, observation and interview, descriptive statistics tools
such as means, standard deviation is used.
This study is
descriptive research design whose purpose is to measure
customer satisfaction of Ethiopian electric utility and the study was use
cross sectional research design. The target populations of the study are registered
customers of the study area.
3.2. Description of the study area
This study was
conduct at AdigratWereda. AdigratWereda is located around inEastern
Tigray region. It is found 120Km far from Mekelle to eastern direction. This
study focused onmeasuring customer satisfaction of
Ethiopian electric utility.
The target populations of the study are the customers
of Ethiopian electric utilitywho are medium sized industries. Also in the study
area, have low and high power user customers but this study was conduct in
medium sized customers. The reason to select these areas is because the large
numbers of customers are medium sized. Therefore, these customers are 2454.
accurate information about a given population will expect to be obtaining from
a census study. However, due to large number of population size, in many of the
cases, a complete coverage of a population is not possible. Thus, sampling is
one of the methods, which allows the researcher to study a relatively small
number of units representing the whole population (Saratnakos, 1998).
A stratified random sampling method was use in this
study to select the number of sample respondents proportionally from each
Primarily, sample size
of the population was determined by using the formula below (Yamane’s,1967)as follow:
n= N/ (1+N (e)2
n= sample size for the
N= total population
e= margin of error (5%)
In order to proportionally distribute the samples
among the strata the formula below was implemented (Yamane’s,1967)
nh = Sample
size from each stratum
Nh = Total
population from each stratum
Ns = Total
population of the sum of strata for the study
n = Total sample size from the study
Since the sample size known, the skip interval to
follow calculated as follow;
interval (I) = Population list size
interval (I) = 1437
313 Skip interval
(I) = 5
After the skip interval is calculated, ‘7’ selected as
the starting point; therefore, the samples will select by the list name of the
medium sized customers, i.e., 5th, 10th, 15th,
20th, 25th, and so on.
Table. 3.1. Proportional Sample Size from Each
Medium power customers
number customers in the districts
Sample size from each customer category approximate
Source; EEU Adigrat
The remained 15 will be from employees of EEU Adigrat district.
3.5. Sources of Data
To collect consistent
data and to reach to the targeted solution of the problem, the study was used
both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data was collect from
the medium sized customers of EEU Adigrat district. The secondary data was
collect from various reports, Journals, and other written materials, which are
available in the study area.
study, both questionnaire and interview used to get primary data. In this
regard, the questionnaires and interview used to collect relevant information
from customers of adigrat district by using open and close end questions and
prepared structured interview. Secondary data was also collected from the
available documents of the district.
The questionnaire had two sections. The first section
was contains questions associated with the general demographic characteristics
of the sample respondents.The second section was deals with questions related
challenges of restaurant and coffee house businesses. Finally, part of the
questionnaire contains questions regarding to encompass questions associated
with opportunities of restaurant and coffee house businesses. For the sake of
making the questionnaire clear and easily understand, it was develop in English
version, later it was translate in to Tigrigna version.
3.7 Distribution, Collection of the Questionnaire.
of the questionnaires were distributed to collect necessary information from
researcher used two structured questionnaire, one for customers and second for
employees of the district presented personally to the respondents to gather the
data. The respondents have a number of alternative options with structural
questionnaire from which they must choose the one that most closely
approximates their view. The value of the study and the instructions were explained
to the subjects.
were requested to complete the questionnaires which were collected personally
by the researcher and employee of EEU from individual respondents which ensured
a high return rate.
questionnaires were distributed to the customers of EEU Adigrat district. It
took about 2 months to distribute and collect the questionnaire from the
respondents. The status of the questionnaires was followed via phone and by
physical visiting. The researcher collected the questionnaire from few
respondents and make sure whether it was correctly filled or not by the
respondents. Clarity of wordings in view of respondents’ level of understanding
was checked on the pre-test to avoid misunderstanding of the questions.
3.8. Methods of Data Analysis
The data generated from
questionnaire analyzed to address the objectives through the application of
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 20). The descriptive statistics
was use in this study i.e. descriptive statistical methods such as frequency,
percentage, chart, graph, tables, figures, mean
and standard deviation were used as a means of presentation.
3.9. Ethical Considerations
One of the most important
ethical principles is that coercion should not be used to force people into
taking part in the research.The researcher did not offer any financial or other
material rewards to
induce people to
take part in
the research, to
avoid biased results.Participants were
given fair and
accurate information about
the research and
were told how much
time it would
most probably take
to fill the
questionnaire.Anonymity and confidentiality was offer to all the
participants in the research. The participants were informing that the data
collected would be used in such a way that the information would not be
traceable to any particular individual.