Cervical cancer and other cancers. In this review,

Cervical cancer as one of the most prevalent malignant gynecological tumors is accounted for 10–15 % of all female cancer-relevant deaths throughout the world that provided the second highest number of deaths in female cancers, in which exceeded only by the means of breast cancer 1–2. Amid the diagnosis, 80 % of patients are detected with malignant cancer, and the age steadily dwindles. Furthermore, cervical cancer still involves high risks of morbidity and mortality as a consequence of metastasis and recurrence 3–4. Consequently, there is an immense requirement and urgency in investigating biomarkers of preliminary prognosis and metastasis, and new found treatment purposes to enhance the survival of cervical cancer. Utilizing of Pap smear screening considerably lessens the occurrence of cervical cancer. However, cervical cancer is still the third most habitually diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Aggregated evidence propounds that somatic mutation, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes play an essential role in the genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer 5–6. Epidemiology researches have exhibited that high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs), smoking habits, hormone replacement therapy usage and genetic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer 7. Although the treatment rate for cervical cancer is up to 80–90% in the early phases (Points I–II) and 60% in phase III, the prognosis is negligible following cancer development to an advanced stage or relapse. In consideration of the rampant usage of new technologies, many lncRNAs have been ascertained as a novel regulatory player of molecular biology in cervical cancer and other cancers. In this review, the provenance and the conspectus function of lncRNAs are abbreviated, and we accentuated the actions of lncRNAs in cervical cancer, and the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in cervical cancer are summarized. Concurrently, the application of lncRNAs as biomarkers in cervical cancer prognosis and prognosticators for metastasis is discussed as well. Though the basic mechanisms of cervical cancer still are broadly unknown, there are calculated roughly more than 520,000 recently diagnosed cervical cancer annually, more than 80 % of which happened in the developing countries 8-9. Accumulating proofs have illustrated that lncRNAs play substantial roles during the commencement and advancement of human cancers 10–11.Many LncRNAs have been discovered in cervical cancer to repress metastasis, and assist in the prognostication of metastasis via their expression levels as well 12.Piles of lncRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in cancer and their expression levels are correlated with relapse, prognosis, metastasis, and predicting the response to cure 13–14. Diverse lncRNAs have been described to act as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors, playing a vigorous role in modifying cancer development 15.


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