Brynin, former socialist countries to show the differences

Brynin, Malcolm and Francisco Perales. “Gender Wage Inequality: The De-Gendering of the Occupational Structure.” European Sociological Review, vol. 32, no. 1, Feb. 2016, pp. 162-174.Chapman, Stephen J. and Nicole Benis. “Ceteris Non Paribus: The Intersectionality of Gender, Race, and Region in the Gender Wage Gap.” Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 65, Nov. 2017, pp. 78-86. The focus of Chapman and Benis is to show that specific regions in the United States play a major role in the gender pay gap. Data from the Women’s Law Center was used to prove that a person race in a specific region plays a part in the way the person is paid. This also helped them to test intersectionality in specific regions.Chu, Yu-Wei Luke and Susan Linz. “Do You Get What You Ask? The Gender Gap in Desired and Realised Wages.” International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38, no. 6, Sept. 2017, pp. 893-853.This was meant to find out if there was a specific trait in the gender gap that had an effect on people’s promotions. They collected data from six former socialist countries to show the differences between traits and moving up in a job. They found that there were many aspects that made up 7-8% of the gender pay gap.Clark, Cal, et al. “The Evolving Issue Base for the Gender Gap in the U.S.” Conference Papers — Southern Political Science Association, 2005 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, pp. 1-57. Overview of the central issues on which women and men differ in U.S. politics; Factors which make women relatively liberal on issues affecting the less fortunate in society and less likely than men to vote strictly in terms of their own economic self-interest; Several models of how the issue positions of women and men can shape the gender gap in voting; Reasons women are becoming an important serial constituency in U.S. politics.HEGEWISCH, ARIANE and EMMA WILLIAMS-BARON. “The Gender Wage Gap and Work-Family Supports: Women’s Choices or Policy Choices?.” St. Louis University Public Law Review, vol. 36, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 5-17. States vary significantly by availability of work-life balance policies offered; only 16 states have at least one type of paid leave legislation, including paid sick leave, paid family leave, and temporary disability insurance at the state or local level. The five states that score highest on work-family supports-New York, California, the District of Columbia, New Jersey and Rhode Island-are among the states with the lowest gender wage gap.His and Hers: Higher Education, Firm Size and Gender Gaps in Management.” Conference Papers — American Sociological Association, Jan. 2013, pp. 1-39. Johnson, David. “48 Countries Are Ahead of the U.S. In Closing the Gender Gap.” Time.Com, 17 Nov. 2017, p. 1.The U.S. is behind 48 other countries around the world when it comes to closing the gender gap, according to data published recently by the World Economic Forum. At No. 49, the U.S. ranks above average for gender equality worldwide, but behind countries such as Iceland, Rwanda and Nicaragua, which have all seen female heads of state within the last 50 years. Kleinjans, Kristin J., et al. “Occupational Prestige and the Gender Wage Gap.” Kyklos, vol. 70, no. 4, Nov. 2017, pp. 565-593.The reasons why occupational segregation persists despite the increases in women’s education and labor force participation, and why it results in a gender wage gap. The effect is economically significant: the gender differences in the weights placed on prestige and wages can explain up to one half of the gender wage gap resulting from occupational segregation, or about one fourth of the overall gender wage gap.Leuze, Kathrin and Susanne Strauß. “Why Do Occupations Dominated by Women Pay Less? How ‘Female-Typical’ Work Tasks and Working-Time Arrangements Affect the Gender Wage Gap among Higher Education Graduates.” Work, Employment & Society, vol. 30, no. 5, Oct. 2016, pp. 802-820.Maume, David J. and Leah Ruppanner. “State Liberalism, Female Supervisors, and the Gender Wage Gap.” Conference Papers — American Sociological Association, Jan. 2013, pp. 1-43. Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women’s representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these  trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or  the assumption that the U.S. pay is determined by market forces.Moore, Thomas S. “Occupational Career Change and Gender Wage Inequality.” Work & Occupations, vol. 45, no. 1, Feb. 2018, pp. 82-121.Nisic, Natascha. “Smaller Differences in Bigger Cities? Assessing the Regional Dimension of the Gender Wage Gap.” European Sociological Review, vol. 33, no. 2, Apr. 2017, pp. 292-304.Perez-Villadoniga, Maria J. and Ana Rodriguez-Alvarez. “Comparing the Gender Gap in Gross and Base Wages.” International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38, no. 5, July 2017, pp. 646-660.Pietrykowski, Bruce. “The Return to Caring Skills: Gender, Class, and Occupational Wages in the US.” Feminist Economics, vol. 23, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 32-61.Srivastava, Sameer B. and Eliot L. Sherman. “Agents of Change or Cogs in the Machine? Reexamining the Influence of Female Managers on the Gender Wage Gap.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 120, no. 6, May 2015, pp. 1778-1808. Weber, Lauren. “Gender Wage Gap Widens at Age 32, Report Finds.” Wall Street Journal – Online Edition, 22 June 2016, p. 1. Wei-hsin, Yu and Janet Chen-Lan Kuo. “The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?.” American Sociological Review, vol. 82, no. 4, Aug. 2017, pp. 744-769. Moms are appeared to get bring down wages than childless ladies crosswise over mechanical nations. In spite of the fact that exploration on moms’ wage inconvenience has noticed that the degree of this disservice isn’t all inclusive among moms, it has given careful consideration to how the basic attributes of employments direct the value women pay for parenthood. WILLS, JEREMIAH B. and SHANNON N. DAVIS. “Contextualizing the Motherhood Wage Penalty with Child Well-Being Indicators.” International Journal of Sociology of the Family, vol. 43, no. 1-2, Mar. 2017, pp. 1-15.

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