1,2 is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired. Braille
is a system of raised dots that can be read with the fingers by people who are
blind or who have low vision. It is named after Louis Braille, the French man
who invented it. Braille symbols are formed within units of space known as
braille cells. A full braille cell consists of six raised dots arranged in two
parallel rows each having three dots. The dot positions are identified by
numbers from one through six. Sixty-four combinations are possible using one or
more of these six dots. A single cell can be used to represent an alphabet
letter, number, punctuation mark, or even a whole word.
is possible to transcribe braille by replacing each letter with the braille
code for the letter. This is usually known as Grade 1 Braille. Grade 1 braille
is mostly used by beginners. The basic problem of Grade 1 braille is that
braille letters are much larger than printed ones. Grade 2 braille uses
contractions, which allows to save space and increase reading speed.
Transcribing a text into Grade 2 braille is difficult, and the people doing the
transcription need to have a special education. Grade 3 Braille is a system
that includes many additional contractions. It is almost like a shorthand. It
is rarely used for books, but people use it to be able to write and read fast,
for themselves. It can be used for taking notes. Only very few people can use
grade 4 braille. It uses many rules to shorten grade 3 even further. It allows
a blind person to use shorthand to follow spoken conversation. Very often,
systems of seven or eight dots are used.
for Braille Embossed on Paper
braille-producing country has standards for the size and spacing of braille 3.
The nominal height of braille dots around 0.48 mm and shall be uniform within
any given transcription. The nominal base diameter of braille dots around 1.44
mm embossed on paper. Cell spacing of dots shall conform to the following: i)
the nominal distance from center to center of adjacent dots (horizontally or
vertically, but not diagonally) in the same cell shall be 2.340 mm ii) the
nominal distance from center to center of corresponding dots in adjacent cells
shall be 6.2 mm. The nominal line spacing of braille cells from center to
center of nearest corresponding dots in adjacentThe Dravidian
languages are a language spoken mainly in southern
India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as
Lanka , southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and
overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.
is used by thousands of people all over the world in their native languages,
and provides a means of literacy for all. Bharati braille 4 or Bhartiya Braille (Indian
braille), is a largely unified braille script
for writing the languages of India. When India gained
independence, eleven braille scripts were in use, in different parts of the
country and for different languages. By 1951 a single national standard had
been settled on, Bharati braille, which has since been adopted by Sri
Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
Braille is the adaptation of the six-dot system for the languages of India. The
Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada braille alphabets sheets are shown in
Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively.