(1988). Colombia and the War on Drugs. Foreign Affairs, 67(1),
Bagley (1988) discusses
Columbia’s involvement with the war on drugs. Although marijuana and other
opiates were initially the primary drugs being shipped to the U.S. by
Columbians, in the early 80s, cocaine soon took over. The cartel began to
expand as cocaine started taking over the trade. As the cartel was growing,
Pablo Escobar became more involved with politics, so he could create his
following. Before he went into politics, most Columbian traffickers didn’t
bother getting involved with politics. Before the war on drugs began to blow
up, the Columbian government didn’t do much to stop drug trafficking.
Eventually they reached out to the U.S. for help in training. As the U.S. began
to support Columbia’s military to fight drug trafficking, Columbia began to get
more resources to supply their military. Even though the government was
receiving help to fight, there were still some Columbian officials who were
corrupted and even blamed the U.S for corruption. They wanted to keep the drug
doesn’t mention Pablo Escobar’s mugshot which is my artifact, the article does
discuss Columbia during the war on drugs. The article touches up on Columbia’s
and even Pablo Escobar’s involvement with drug trafficking and even politics.
Pobutsky, A. B. (2013).
Peddling pablo: Escobar’s cultural renaissance. Hispania, 96(4),
Pobutsky (2013) mentions the
death of Pablo Escobar and just what his reputation brought to Columbia.
Although the kingpin was dead, his legacy lived on throughout Columbia when it
came to drug trafficking. Pablo Escobar’s death still brought him fame. For
instance, a painting was dedicated to him by Fernando Botero. After his death,
Columbia’s violence and drug trafficking would seem to subside. But instead, it
has gotten worse and increased.
Pobutsky didn’t mention the
mugshot either. But I decided to include this journal since it touches up on
Pablo Escobar’s legacy. Pobutsky discusses how the legacy still lives on in
Columbia. Instead of the drug trafficking and violence coming to an end, it in
fact, continued and even increased.
M Jaramillo, C. (2017). Pablo
escobar: Zoomania in the narco imperium. the glorification of the cocaine
network. The Design Journal, 20(sup1), S4697.
compares the world of drug trafficking, or more specifically, Columbia and
Pablo Escobar to the kind of power that comes from a zoo, as well as his
fascination with animals. The illegal money which was brought in to Columbia
through drug trafficking, would then be legalized by investing in something
which wouldn’t raise suspicion. Even though this was the reasonable thing to do
to hide the fact criminals were getting their money illegally, Mr. Escobar
wanted to flaunt his success as a businessman instead. Eventually Pablo Escobar
began to turn his dreams into a reality by starting his very own zoo. Jaramillo
states Escobar’s son comparing the zoo to Disneyland. In Columbia, Escobar was
a popular man in a positive aspect despite the drug trafficking. When he opened
his zoo, he wanted it to be open to the public as well as free of charge to
visit. He wanted the poor people of Columbia to be able to visit and enjoy
nature just as he did. Although, the drug-lord wanted to turn his dream into a
reality, many people saw this as another way for a smuggler to traffic their
drugs. They didn’t see the point in having another zoo, especially since it was
Like the others,
Jaramillo doesn’t discuss my artifact which his Pablo Escobar’s mugshot. But it
gives the kingpin a sense a humanity. The article talks about Pablo Escobar’s
love for the animal kingdom, it also relates the narco-world to his zoo which
was full of exotic animals. Much like narcotics, Pablo Escobar had his animals
shipped in illegally. His zoo was also frowned upon by officials since they saw
it as another opportunity for Escobar to import and export his drugs.
Thompson, D. P. (1996). Pablo escobar, drug baron: His surrender,
imprisonment, and escape. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 19(1), 55-91.
Thompson (1996) discussed Pablo Escobar’s background as well as
his story dealing with the world of narcos. Pablo Escobar’s family history is
mentioned, as it tells just where he came from. His father was a farm manager,
mother a school teacher. But best of all, and one of the people Escobar really
looked up to, was his godfather, a delegate for United Nations as well as a
highly respected man. This caused Pablo Escobar to become more interested and
involved with politics even at a young age. When his criminal organization
started making more profit, he even created organization which would provide
housing to the homeless. Even though Escobar was a criminal, when it came to
politics, he made many politicians look bad and even posed a threat due to
their own corruption. Pablo was an idealistic competitor to politicians since
he showed sympathy for the people of Columbia. He also couldn’t be bought by
anyone since he didn’t need the money. While Pablo Escobar was prospering, the
United States was beginning to crack down on drug traffickers. Even though they
began increasing their task force to stop the trafficking, smugglers began
changing their routes causing the US to become desperate. Whenever they
apprehended a small shipment they would broadcast it for the nation to see.
Traffickers became aware of what was happening and began sacrificing smaller
shipments, so the task force would be too distracted to focus on the bigger
Thompson doesn’t quite mention the mugshot taken. But Pablo
Escobar’s arrests were mentioned. The article was about the events which
happened between his first initial arrest to his death. Escobar was politically
active for the people of Columbia and a big threat to many politicians who were
also corrupt. The war on drugs favored Columbia as well as Escobar in the
beginning, but eventually Pablo Escobar surrendered to law enforcement, escaped
from prison and was hunted down and killed by the Columbian police.
Bowley, J. (2013). Robin Hood or Villain: The
Social Constructions of Pablo Escobar. Honors College at University of
Maine. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/honors/109
compares Pablo Escobar to Robin Hood. For the people of Columbia, he was a
respected individual who cared for Columbia. In the U.S., he was famous for
being a drug lord who also declared war against the government of Columbia in
order to rid the expulsion of criminals in Columbia to the U.S., as well as
ordering assassinations on law enforcement, journalists, and even politicians.
The people of Columbia recognized Escobar for the good man he intended to be,
despite being a drug lord. Before Escobar’s reputation succeeded him, Columbia’s
lower class suffered through the political corruption and turmoil. Pablo Escobar
was protected by the popular class of Columbia because they would benefit from his
deeds. The way Escobar established his reputation as a respected politician was
through fear. The drug lord would kidnap and kill hostages as well as killing anyone
who got in his way of success. High-ranking politicians and officials feared him,
which caused them to cooperate easily with his demands. But when it came to the
public, Escobar would portray kindness and empathy for his people. He wanted the
people to support him despite his crimes.
Bowley didn’t mention
my artifact either, but instead discussed the impact which Pablo Escobar had on
Columbia. When it came to politics he was loved by the people of his country. But
when it came to the world of narcotics, he was hated and feared by politicians as
well as the United States. Pablo Escobar was both a criminal/villain and the Robin
Hood for Columbia.