This paper is going to look at lobotomies and most of its aspects, what the procedure is and what it entails, why the procedure is carried out and to which persons is the procedure carried out, the level of safety of the procedure and its origins as well as if the procedure is still in practice. These are some of the aspects of lobotomies that the paper is going to look at. The main aim of the paper is to discuss lobotomies and if they were actually good or they just did more harm than good. The paper will also look into the history of the procedure and if the procedure is still being done in the modern world today.
Lobotomies are forms of psychosurgery which are neurosurgical treatment of mental diseases or psychiatric diseases. It has a history that dates back to antiquity and it involves all the clinical processes that are involved in the neurosciences (Acharya, 2004). Introduction Before looking into the intricacies of lobotomy, it is important to understand that the main aim of this procedure is to cure mental disorders and thus it is important to try and understand what mental disorders are all about.
The nature of mental disorder is such that they are so dynamic and thus their management is no walk in the park. A dynamic problem requires an integrated approach and so has the approach to mental disorders management been. The exact cause of mental disorder cannot be easily ascertained as it depends on a number of issues and may also be as a result of a complex interplay of a number of factors (Meleis, 2006). The evaluation of the patient in such a case is therefore difficult and thus an integrated approach which is people and time intensive becomes necessary in carrying out the evaluation.
Evaluation is not only required at the diagnosis stage, since continuous evaluation is required to asses any development that have been made with regards to the patients health (Meleis, 2006). An integrated approach to medical delivery employs the use of biological, psychological, socio-cultural, environmental and pharmacological approaches in delivery of medical services to a patient (Meleis, 2006). Health being the total well being of an individual, the integrated approach is seen as the best approach in ensuring the provision of better healthcare (Meleis, 2006).
In a mental healthcare system the nurse is charged with the following responsibilities: Biological There role of the doctors has for a long time been considered as the evaluation of the patient (Meleis, 2006). In an integrated approach the system is such that the role of the nurse in evaluation of the patient is on the increase as they play an important role in the evaluation of the patients. A lobotomy is a surgical procedure that is carried on the brain of a patient, and it is thus psychosurgery since it involves neurology, and it is also known as leucotomy or even leucotomy.
The procedure involves the cutting off of the connections that run all the way to the prefrontal cortex to the anterior parts of the brain especially on the frontal lobes (El-Hai, 2004). The procedure has always been controversial ever since it was introduced in the year 1935, despite that fact that it has been the main form of prescribed treatment for more than two decades and even some times being prescribed occasionally for some other conditions (El-Hai, 2004).
This has been done despite the fact that there have been claims and even evidence that the procedure is known to produce frequent and in most cases very serious side effects. The time that its usage was most prominent was between the years 1940 and 1950 and it was also during this time that modern antipsychotic drugs were introduced. By the end of the year 1951, more than 20,000 lobotomies had been performed with America (Acharya, 2004).
Lobotomy was just one of a huge number of series of therapies that were developed in Europe within the first century (El-Hai, 2004). This presented a form of a break from the tradition of relegating patients with mental disorders to asylums, which was the norm considering that most of the forms of mental illness were considered to be hereditary disorders and thus they were regarded as unlikely to be mended by treatment. Most of the lobotomies were performed with America with an approximate number of 40,000 patients having been lobotomized (Acharya, 2004).