Ashley StatenMr. GodinJanuary 10, 2017World HistorySecond Industrial Revolution The second industrial revolution is also known as the Technological Revolution. The Second Industrial Revolution was the period of quick innovation from 1870 to 1914, just after the civil war. The beginning of the second industrial revolution is defined by improvements in manufacturing and production systems. This allowed a wide use of technological systems that had been previously restricted to very few cities. A large spread of railroads and telephone lines allowed a large shift of people and ideas.In the second industrial revolution, many things were either invented or improved. Improvements in communication, electricity, and transportation made large steps during the second industrial revolution. In 1876, the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. The telephone works using three parts, a switch, a receiver, and a microphone. The switch connects a telephone to a network, the receiver changes electrical signals into sound, and a microphone changes sound waves into electrical impulses to send to the other telephone (homesciencetools.com). The design of the light bulb was finished in 1879 by Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan. Thomas Edison did not invent the lightbulb, he made one that was practical for home use, staying on for thirteen and a half hours. Edison also made the standard light bulb base that can fit into a universal socket. Finally, the first electric railroad was developed in Berlin, Germany in 1879 (study.com).Improvements in transportation included steel replacing iron railroads. Due to a rise in steel construction in the 1860s, railroads were made out of steel. Steel, being stronger, quickly replaced iron. This made steel the standard for railway rail. Steel is stronger than iron and due to this longer rails could be rolled. The first steel railroad was sent to Derby Midland Railway Station. The iron rails that were replaced with steel wore out on average every six months, sometimes every three (Victorian Engineering, 183). Steel rails were more durable and lasted more than six years. This allowed an increase in transportation by rail. Steel rails allowed for more powerful locomotives pulling longer trains and rail cars, this increased the yield of railroads causing railroads to become the top form of transportation. Railroads becoming the top way to transport goods meant a steady drop in shipping costs (Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History).Two important people in the second industrial revolution are Henry Ford and John D. Rockefeller Sr. Henry Ford helped develop the assembly line and was a key individual in making cars affordable for the common person. Henry Ford created the Ford Model T car in 1908 and developed a mode of production known as the assembly line. Ford sold millions of cars and is considered one of America’s leading businessmen (biography.com). John D. Rockefeller Sr. is considered the richest man in modern history (The New York Times). Rockefeller built his first oil refinery near Cleveland, Ohio and as kerosene and gasoline grew in demand, Rockefeller became incredibly wealthy. Rockefeller controlled 90% of oil at his peak and had a monopoly on the oil business in the U.S. by 1882 (biography.com). The first industrial revolution led major advancements in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation starting in Britain and moving through Europe and to North America. This was a very beneficial time for people and changed the way people thought and the way the world worked. The second industrial, about 50 years later, also changed the way the world worked. The second industrial revolution caused a rise in the standard of living, but also caused a major increase in unemployment due to the fact that jobs that had previously taken many people to complete now only took a handful because of machines being able to complete the work (industrialdevelopement.com). The cost of production fell dramatically and a large increase in productivity took place.Some effects of the second industrial revolution are that communities were linked together for the first time, goods could be transported more regularly, and people could not travel from one place to another. The second industrial revolution changed the way people lived and worked. Henry Ford industrialized the assembly line and made the average man able to afford a vehicle. Rockefeller changed the face of the oil industry. Steel railroads meant longer and heavier trains. The Wrights made the first airplane and telephones now meant people could communicate over long distances. Electricity meant people could now work later and improved work conditions.