As early as A.D 1000, people in India, China, and Africa would expose themselves to mild cases of smallpox in order to acquire immunity for the disease. This is where the idea for vaccinations first originated. It has been theorized that vaccination has been around for many centuries in ancient civilizations such as China, India, and Persia in 1000 B.C. They used a process called variolation in which patients would be injected with a sample of the disease in a cut on their body. This process can be effective in developing immunity, yet some experience a harmful attack since the disease is still alive. These theories have never been proved true, but the first recorded use of vaccination was by Edward Jenner who was born on May 17th in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Orphaned at an age of five, Edwards interest in science was always a constant in his life. He started as a surgeon’s apprentice, and later studied anatomy and surgery at St. George’s Hospital, London with surgeon John Hunter. Edward returned to Berkeley in 1772 to practice general medicine and surgery as a local doctor. Edward continued his research on vaccinations during his career until 1796 when he tested his vaccination on an eight year old boy. He inserted the pus from a cow pustule into the arm of the boy, and his theory was proved right as he never contracted the cow pox disease. In 1797 Edward submitted his findings on vaccinations to the Royal Society, but was told that there wasn’t enough proof. Edward Jenner was determined to justify his findings so he began to test on many other children including his own 11 month old son. In 1798 he was able to publish findings and called his treatment a vaccine due to the word for cow in Latin being ‘vacca.’ Once published many people did not agree with his means of testing with material from a diseased animal. Edward did not stop his research and was able to spread vaccinations due to their evident benefits. He died on the 26th of January, 1823.b. how they work Vaccines work by injecting weakened or dead microbes into healthy individuals. The weakened microbes do not cause disease but their antigens trigger immune responses as it would to a real infection. This means that the immune system produces memory cells which create immunity against subsequent exposure to the living and dangerous microbes. Using genetic engineering tailor-made vaccines can be made. You can do this by synthesizes the antigenic proteins of the disease-causing microbes. The antigens are used as vaccines, and do not need to be injected along with a weakened or dead microbe. The second way you can do this is by inserting genes that encode the antigens into the genome of harmless microbes. The “designer” microbes produce antigens without causing the disease.c. examples of disease eradicated and THOUGHT TO BE eradicated through vaccinations (include at least one instance of an outbreak of a disease believed to have been eradicated from a region) “Fifty years after the approval of an extremely effective vaccine against measles, one of the world’s most contagious diseases, the virus still poses a threat to domestic and global health security.” -Centers for disease control Measles was one of the most contagious viruses during the 20th century. Measles has been speculated to have been around since the 9th century due to a Persian doctor writing a paper on encountering a disease which resembles measles. By 1912, measles was seen as a threat as an average of 6,000 measles deaths were seen each year. By 1963, a vaccine for measles was created by John Enders with the help of his colleagues. The CDC struggled in their fight against measles, but were able to decrease the amount of reported measles cases by 80% in 1981. By 2000 measles was said to be eradicated. In the recent years, evidence suggests that this is not the case. In 2013 measles cases in the United States tripled, despite the fact that 90% of the American population does have their vaccinations. On March 7th of 2014, there has been an outbreak of an outbreak of measles in northern Manhattan and the Bronx. Canadian officials also reported that five new cases of measles have been discovered in British Columbia. 2014 itself has been reported to have 667 cases of measles from 27 different states. No number of cases has been this high in the United States since 2000. In 2015, there were 188 cases of measles from 24 states and the District of Columbia. In 2016 there were 86 cases from 16 states. In 2017 there was 120 cases from 15 states. d. an explanation of how the flu vaccine is made and why it doesn’t always protect you There are three different ways that the flu vaccine is made. The first and most common way is egg-based flu vaccines. This is used to make both the inactive vaccine, called the flu shot, and the live attenuated flu vaccine, also known as nasal spray. The production is started by providing private sector manufacturers with the candidate vaccine viruses. The candidate vaccine viruses are ten injected into fertilized hen’s eggs. The virus replicates itself over a time period of a couple days. The fluid containing the virus is then taken out of eggs and the virus antigen is purified and tested. The vaccine is approved and then released to the world. The second way to create the flu vaccine is with cell-based flu vaccines. First cell-grown candidate vaccine viruses are treated into cultured mammalian cells and replicate over a few days. The virus-containing fluid is collected from the cells, and the antigen is purified and tested until release. The third and final approved method is recombinant flu vaccines. It starts with isolating a certain protein from a vaccine virus which will be combined with another virus that grows well in insect cells. The new vaccine is combined with insect cells and replicates over a period of a few days. The protein is taken from the insect cells and packaged and purified. The flu vaccine is not always effective. This can be for a number of reasons, but the main one is the the flu virus is most mutating viruses out there. The virus can change to a point that memory cells will no longer recognize it. More reasons for it failing is that you can contract the flu virus too quickly, or you can contract the flu virus after too much time has passed between the vaccination and infection. The vaccine will not remain effective after long periods of time. The memory cell’s lifetime is not infinite. It you get the flu virus before two weeks after the vaccination it will not be effective. Your body has not had enough time to develop an immune response. e. an explanation of why it has been so difficult to create a vaccine against HIVMany life threatening diseases have been prevented from causing outbreaks using vaccines. Over 14 childhood diseases now can be treated with vaccines. Some diseases are harder to solve. An example of this is HIV. When someone is infected with HIV, your body does not create the same immune response that it would with a regular virus. HIV attacks helper T cells which are responsible for most of the immune response. Helper T cells also help in creating memory cells which remember the disease. The virus kills the cells that a vaccine would induce to create an immune response. f. A discussion of the dangers of the anti vaccination movementAnti vaccination movements have been around for a long time, even dating back to the time of smallpox in England. The Vaccination Acts of 1853 and 1867 required children to receive vaccines after Edward Jenner had created them. In response to this The Anti Vaccination League, Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, and many anti-vaccination journals were created as a backlash. These anti vaccination movements are dangerous though. Viruses or bacteria begin to become immunized if the amount of people vaccinated in a population is high enough. An example can be polio. Polio was slowly becoming obsolete once about 70% of the population had their vaccines. The percentage is relative though, as less contagious diseases would need fewer people to be immunized in order for the spread to slow. The reasons that people choose for their children or themselves not to get vaccines are based on misinformed decisions. Some of these reasons include that people believe that if the disease isn’t common, then there is no reason to be afraid. Other decisions are based on fear. Since 1998, vaccines have been speculated to cause autism. This is based on little evidence, yet the fear of getting autism causes many people to avoid vaccines. Without vaccines, many disease thought to be under control could appear again, just like the previously mentioned measles. Diseases that cause death and destruction. In order to fight these accusations, more reliable and scientifically proved information needs to be provided to people so they will not have fear of vaccines, something that can save their lives.