Another internal pressure is combined which it is

research from Estrada, standard pressure is defined as the bolt load is
smearedover the bolt hole upper surface.At the beginning of analysis, the load
is applied as the seating condition. In thiscase, during the loading there no
contact loss will be occurred and effective seating pressure should be minimum
than the larger of reacting gasket pressure. Besides, the bolt load is relaxed
which assuming the relaxation is negligibleas the rotation increases, in order
to maintain a uniform bolt load since amechanic typically retightens the bolts
over the life of the joint.Based on
assumption in study from Gong et al., a mthematical model is defined the
coefficients ofself-tightening coefficients of the lenticular gasket for
preloaded force of the joint and the maximum contact pressure.The sealing
performance is determined directly by capability of self-tightening gaskets of
the pipelinejoined by a bolted flange.Next the study
from Billon et al., at least on the
outer seal ring and on the graphite ring, the conditions necessary is assumed
to ensure leak tightness are respected when forces continue to take the form of
compression forces. A development of analysis from the research of Abid et al., by using a spiral wound gasket, performance
of the gasketed bolted flange joint is analyzedwhen the transient thermal
loading and internal pressure is combined which it is subjected using
detailednonlinear finite element analysis.From study
of K.Jalammanavar et al., researchers describe 3D finite element method ofsimulated
bolted joints. They observed that with bolt load nonlinearly increase when it
is in axial load. The bolt axis and the eccentricity between loads as the
increasing of load will attributeto loss of contact area of the flanges due to
this non-linearity.    Another
research from M. Mogri, misalignment of theGrayloc clamp connector (GCC) is
simulated by using the variation of the initial bolt preload due to bolt loading,
if desired. Based on preliminary stress results, due to boltloading was not
deemed necessary for investigation will cause misalignment while the modelling
ofcomputational is developed to allow this option.The load of the bolt is
applied as a force after the bolt body is selected and the pretension-adjustment
direction is assigned along the longitudinal axis of the bolt. The bolt preload
is locked as pretension-adjustment displacement, in the second load step. However,the
radial pressure force acting on the gasket is 1/3rd of the axialpressure force
which is the domination of force on the gasket by the bolt loading compression.
The force of radial pressure is neglected accordingly. As the result, the
stresses given is generated as the result of boltloadsin the components of the
GCC, the expectation of the circumferential stress distribution in the
seal-ring should be followeda pattern similar to that of the hub.From the
study of P. E. Prueter, in structural analysis, the nodal temperatures from the
heat transfer analysis are then read once the appropriate bolt loads are
applied to the system. By using linear beam elements, full integration and
linear brick elements is used in all structural analyses.

research from Schwingshackl and Petrov, in an opposing load of pressure a
constant bolt load is applied to the central parts of the bolt head, any
changes is ignored which deformations the flange members or in the bolt will
affect the static bolt load, asthe calculation of the stress distribution in
the investigated. Based on the constant load that is transmitted due to the
distribution of static stress in the flange members is calculated via the bolt
head into the flange.

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