Andy Jpn’s small size, homogenous pop and natural

Andy MeiAP World HistoryChapter 20 – Northern Eurasia, 1500-1800Japanese ReunificationJpn exp. 3 major changes from 1500-1800: internal+external military conflicts, political growth and strengthening, and expanded commercial and cultural contacts. Jpn’s small size, homogenous pop and natural boundaries made political unification easy.Civil War and the Invasion of Korea, 1500-1603In 12th cent parts of Jpn fell under rule of daimyo, warlords and landowners that controlled a castle town, a small bureaucracy, and a band of warriors, the samurai. Daimyo pledged allegiance to Jpnese chief of emperor’s gov and armiesWarfare between Daimyo was common late 1500s became long civil war, Hideyoshi, powerful warlord won1592 Hideyoshi confidently invaded Asian mainland w/ 160000 men and attempted to conquer Korea and become emperorKorean and Jpnese languages relatedChina influenced KoreaYi dynasty in Korea from 1392-1910 was model of COnfucian stateKoreans employed technological and military skill against HideyoshiTurtle boatsHideyoshi mentally unstable, kept countering, died in 1598Jpnese military leaders withdrew forces and made peace in 1606Invasion devastated KoreaKorean yangban (nobility) laid claim to lots of taxpaying land and royal revenues fell 2/3sTi became a tributary stateThe Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800Tokugawa Ieyasu asserted domination over daimyo and est new military gov called Tokugawa Shogunate in 1603 after HideyoshiCaptial @ Edo (tokyo now)Trade promoted dev of Jpnese economy and formation of other trading centersTokugawa Shogunate gave Jpn political unityHowever, Daimyo kept lots of power and autonomyEconomic integration was more important feature than political centralization of Tokugawa,Commercial traffic developed and Shogun and lords paid each other in riceRecipients converted this rice into cashLed to rice exchanges at Edo and OsakaDomestic peace forced the samurai to adapt to the growing bureaucratic needsThey became more educated and became important merchants and adapted to the tastes of civil elites1600s and 1700s were centuries of high achievement in artisanshipIn the early 17th cent manufctrers and merchants got big fortunes.Wealthy merchants weakened Tokugawa policy of controlling commerceCultivated close alliances w/ regional daimyoSometimes even with shogunBy end of 18th century merchant families of Tokygawa Jpn held key to future modernization Also dev of heavy industryJapan and the EuropeansContact w/ Europeans presented Jpn w/ new opps and problemsW/in 30 yrs of arrival of Port in 1543, daimyo were fighting w/ Western style firearms, copied and improved by Jpnese armorersJpnese welcomed but regulated traders from outsideFew Jpnese goods exported, not much importedTraded mostly w/ China and some w/ DutchPort and Spanish merchant ships brought Catholic missionaries (Francis Xavier)Mixed responses: Many ord ppl found new faith meaningfulOthers (elite) opposed it as foreign + disruptive1580, >100000 Jpnese become ChristiansBy early 17th cent ~300000 Jpnese ChristiansSuspicions about Europeans intentions turned most away from ChristianityDecree in 1615 banned ChristianityDestroyed almost the entire Christian community within decades of 1617.Elite Decline and Social CrisisDuring 1700s pop growth put strain on central JapanAlso shogunate inable to stabilize rice prices and stop decline of samuraiRice brokers had monopoly on rice pricesLaws created to stop thisTokugawa shoguns corruptedDecentralization stimulated growth of commercial activitiesEconomy grew faster than popMerchants enjoyed freedom and influence in 18th cent JpnCreated a vivid culture of their own”47 Ronin Incident”, masterless samurai avenging deceased masterThe Later Ming and Early Qing EmpiresEconomic and Cultural achievements of early Ming continued during 16th centuryQing, new dynasty from Manchuria, guided Chna back to prsperity and pce.Europeans sought contact w/ China, left many accounts of impressions, were astonished by power, manufactures, and popEven named fine dishes “china”Growing integration of China into world econ stimulated growth in industries

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