An and store data. It is also used

information system is a set of computerized components that are used to
collect, create and store data. It is also used to process the data into
information and distribute it to the desired destinations. It typically
includes five major components: hardware components, software components, the
data itself, system users and the procedures of manipulating the data into
information (Peppard, 2016). Many organizations, businesses, institutions, and
companies have adopted information systems to aid in the smooth running of
business activities.

 Information systems have over time evolved from being tools of work
to being competitive advantage tools. However, they may be costly to install
and maintain. The cost to have the systems in place is not comparable to the
positive impact it usually has on the organization. They have proven to be
contributors to growth in companies that have used them to perform their
activities. Information systems impact organizations in a right way and many
enterprises have adopted them in their operations.

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 Organizations usually have their primary goals and objectives of the
operations they indulge in. They may have a strategic plan to improve their
intentions by incorporating information systems in their activities. In their
urge to grow, many companies have installed various information systems that
are aligned with the organizational goals and objectives. It has eased
operations and stimulated more output. Business activities have been made fast
and more efficient by the use of computer system infrastructure (Cassidy,
2016). The primary activities that companies have incorporated the systems
include marketing, supply chain management, customer relationship management,
inventory management, payroll management, human resource relationship
management, accounting information management, transaction management, record
keeping for the whole organization, monitoring of distribution channels, and
many other operations. It has proven very profitable to all the agencies.

There has been a notable changeover into computerized systems over time.
Various information systems have been developed over time to cater for business
activities and operations. As mentioned before, these methods have even been
used efficiently by companies as a competitive advantage tool. Organizations
that have embraced technological development have felt its positive impact on
their operations (Peppard, 2016). Managers at all the managerial levels have
advocated for the incorporation of these information systems in their
companies. All over the world, many institutions have used the evolving
information systems to perform their activities.

Previously developed management information systems have been upgraded over
the years to improve the performance of organizations. Computer system
developers have worked tirelessly to come up with customizable informational
systems that can be used by a wide range of organizations in their business
activities. For instance, supply chain management systems have been customized
into supplier relationship management systems. They have been widely used by
manufacturers to maintain supplier intimacy and create a suitable environment
for business operations. Customer relationship management systems have been
incorporated in sales management systems. They have significantly improved
interaction between the organizations and their customers (Cassidy,
2 (Laudon, 2016)016). All these systems can notably be appreciated as
growth contributors in all types of organizations. This paper will target the
various information systems that are being used today to improve the
effectiveness of businesses.

Evolution of Information

 As stated before, information systems have grown over time. They
began from manual systems that included the use of paper to keep all things in
organizations in order. They have notably evolved over the years into
computerized systems that are easy to use and more effective than the manual
systems. They began from single systems that were developed to perform a single
task for the company (Laudon, 2016). They have slowly grown into integrated
systems that can perform various business tasks on the same platform.

Institutions have installed Enterprise Resource Planning systems to aid in
the primary activities they get involved in. An ERP is an integration of many
information systems into one single massive system that incorporates the
principal business activities. Information relates to each other over the whole
system. These systems include operations that are involved in the entire
company (Urquhart, 2010). All organizational departments are integrated
together hence improving supervision and monitoring of company activities.

Trends in Information Systems

systems have advanced with time into really efficient systems. Their inevitable
growth and development has not only led to improved performance of business
activities but also has aided in the gaining of competitive advantage.
Enterprises that have been in the urge to make use of the systems have grown
noticeably. They have improved the systems into artificial intelligence
computer systems that can even be used to forecast business performance
(Cassidy, 2016). It has been enabled by simulation and modeling techniques that
are computed on the computer systems that use information that is stored in the

of the major functional advances that have been added in the information
systems include customer relationship management, human resource relationship
management, business intelligence and electronic commerce. Customers have been
enabled to interact with organizations over information systems. They submit their
feedback over the systems. The workforce in the companies has been monitored by
the use of computerized systems. Payroll systems to generate payments for all
the human resource have proved very efficient in maintaining records (Peppard,
2016). Business intelligence has been incorporated into the systems. It
includes a functionality where the system can do mathematical operations and
present to the user of the system analyzed data in graphs or pie charts.
Electronic commerce has been widely used to sell both goods and services.
Customers have been able to access products and services on online platforms
and make purchases.

also have been technical advancements over time. System developers have
introduced open programming to ensure that new ideas on information systems are
put into consideration. Object-oriented information has been used effectively
to aid in the development of information systems. Organizations have been able
to adopt system architecture for their computerized systems.



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