What is GNU? What is the definition of free software? In this article, we want to look at the
development of Linux GNU and the revolution that created the operating
Linux itself is
the core, which is the core part of the operating system, that controls data
management, memory management, hardware, data entry and exit, and all the main
operating system issues. As I said, Linux itself is not an operating system, but with the tools
produced by the GNU project, it becomes the operating system. And by adding
open source software to it, it can be used in many cases like servers, workstations, desktops, cloud
computing, industrial and medical devices that have built-in systems, etc.
Linux can be called the open-source, free Unix family of operating systems.
Because it is based on the POSIX standard and it is completely favourable
with it. So GNU Linux has good Unix’s
In 1984, the
president of the Free Software Foundation, Richard Stallman, began working on
the GNU project. A group of developers working on this software movement together,
which is still ongoing. At first, most of the GNU project tools, which were a coherent and free core, were
written in the 30 MB programming language. . Even the Minix operating system
was not free, and its copyright was available, despite the availability of its source
code. The GNU
project focuses on the design of the appropriate kernel. The GNU project focused on the design of the
appropriate kernel, but this goal lasted for several years. but Linus Torvalds could not tolerate this
delay ; so He inspired the Minix Code. Finally, on August 25, 1991 at 20:57
(GMT), a historical message was sent to the comp.os.minix newsgroup on behalf
of Linus Torvalds. He was a Finnish student who studied at the University of
His message was
Greetings to anyone outside of Minix – I’m currently working on a
free operating system for AT 386 computers (for entertainment only, like the
big GNU project and professional). I’ve started work since April, and now it’s
up and running. I would like to know from others’ point of view about my
operating system. Who loves minix and who does not like it. Because my
operating system is somewhat similar to Minix. Now (1. 08) bash and (1.40) gcc
on it and other stuff that looks like everyone works right. This means that I
will provide something for a few months and I would like to know what more
people need. I welcome any suggestion and comment, but I do not promise to do
it! Linus ([email protected]). P. N: Yes, this software is free. Of
course it can not be transferred to other types of computers (because it uses
AT386 commands) and may not support anything other than the AT drive. That’s
all I have.
The main goal of
this project is not just to provide a compatible
, stable and secure operating system, but to provide users freedom to run,
study, edit and share software with others, and create a set of software
including kernel , management tools, software development tools (like the
compilation of GIs ).
a recursive acronym and is not the GNU’s Not Unix word for GNU Unix
. Richard Stallman used this
method to convey religion to UNIX. Because it’s impossible to use the Unix name for a trademark in another
product without permission.
The GNU logo inspired of a wild cow
head . it is designed by Etienne Suvasa
and is used on the GNU website or the Free Software Foundation’s articles.
2. What is Open Source?
With open source way all people could collaborate on same projects and
don’t worry about issues of code source and property of projects. Free software
uses this development model .all people could access full open code source and
use it or help others involved in the project to improve it, and
they could use the software they built without limitation .
Free software is definitely open source, but open source software can not be
who have created Open Source text, apart from the free concept in the software
world, only think of software tools and did not want to interfere copyright
violations. Because the efficient return on the model of open source development proved to be true, how ever
it was hard to understand Stalman’s
3.The main differences between GNU Linux
3.1. free software
GNU Linux is a
free and open source operating system that everyone has access to its source
code and can change it based on their own needs. These features make it
possible to fully understand the operating system. You can share Linux
distributions with many others. But the Windows operating system does not have
these features and its source code is secret. You can not figure out what’s
really going on under your Windows operating system.
As I said, Linux
is powered by the Unix operating system and its structure is completely
different from Windows. Therefore, the windows in Windows are not running on
Linux (there are some ways – simulators – but not in normal mode). Linux is
very stable and has a high resiliency, which is not easily damaged, and in many
cases it does not require rebooting for many years. These systems can be
upgraded during and without boot. But on the other hand, you’ll need more
memory and processor to use Windows as a server. Windows often needs to boot again
because the operating system is not stable.
GNU Linux has a
lot to say on the security side. Many of th
features that are not included in Windows are implemented in Linux GNU. Because
Linux is built for multi-network environments, security issues have been observed. Windows has a lot of weaknesses in terms
of security. For example, a malicious program in Windows can destroy the entire
operating system, but in GNU Linux, it will be damaged to the home user’s home
directory, not the entire operating system.
Linux GNU also has some problems,
but the openness of its source code makes it possible to resolve security bugs
before causing damage. If a problem is found in the published programs, it will
be fixed immediately due to the availability of the source code. There is also
virtually no virus for GNU Linux, as more than 1,000 different viruses are created
annually for the Windows operating system.
widest variety in application
GNU Linux can do a lot of tasks such as The device checks for network connections, firewalls, network routers,
various servers, such as the Web, databases, files, print …, desktop,
workstations, etc. The GNU Linux operating system allows it to be used as a
live and portable system. This means that the entire operating system runs on a
CD and you move it with you. In addition, this feature is also very helpful for
bug fixing and displaying it.
3.5. The number of
GNU Linux runs on
a large number of different hardware platforms, and you can switch it to work
on the platform you are looking for. GNU Linux can use embedded hardware with
this feature. It has a 2.6 kernel that lets you run GNU Linux on very small
devices or supercomputers.
4. What is GPL and how does the GNU
Stallman made a
very important move to keep the GNU operating system free, which made the
project continue. This has had an important impact on the world of free
software and Linux. Software licensed under the GPL must have the following
1. Freedom to run
the program for any purpose (release 0)
2. The freedom to study how the plan works and changes it to your needs
(Liberty). Access to the source code is a precondition for this freedom.
3. Freedom to redistribute copies of it, so you can help your neighbors
4.The freedom to improve the program and release these changes to the public
(under the same GPL license), so the whole community benefits from it (Freedom
3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this freedom.
According to the Free Software
Foundation (FSF), GPL’s goal is to protect the freedoms
of developers, developers and users. . When the software is released with the
GPL license, a multifaceted space is formed around it. On the one hand, the
possibility of unlimited distributions and upgrades can be created, on the
other hand, software will always save free software features by defining FSF.
In addition, the spirit of the GPL makes people work the best and give it to
the rest of the community. The reason is Gap’s popularity among the moral and
ethical developers of the license.
known as a philosopher, is the father of the free software movement. He created
the legal, philosophical, and technology related to the Free Software Movement,
as well as the development of the Linux operating system and most of the open
source projects. At the same time, he created all of these things alongside
Manage GNU operating system operations. If there was no statutory
infrastructure created by Stallman, Linux and fully open-source software would
not have the current status.
If there was no Linux
According to statistics in 2008, of the 10 most
reputable web hosting companies in the world, five companies use Linux GNU
operating systems on their web servers. Linux distributions are widely used as
platforms in cloud computing and data centers: since November 2010, out of 500
top systems, 459 (91.8%) are running Linux distributions. Linux with desktop
environments like GNOME and KDE has introduced a user interface like Apple
Macintosh and Microsoft Windows alongside other Unix-like graphics and Unix-like
environments, so that ordinary users can use it as a free and free alternative.
Windows. OS X for use. Linux is dramatically designed to work well on any
smartphone or super-computer, no matter what the processor is. Also, about 80
percent of the world’s web servers work on Linux-based web servers, such as
Apache or Neginiks.
The reason for all these services is very low cost, stable and secure, the need
for very little hardware resources, rapid development by millions of
developers, and most importantly, stability, openness and open source Linux.
However, it can be concluded that Linux GNU can be a good choice.