A) Four was composed of four Chinese Communist

A)     Description of the eventCultural Revolution was an ideological and revolutionary mass campaign in China .It aimed at changing the country’s traditional values and replace them with chairman Mao’s thinking. Mao propagated that the country should  have to get rid of the “Four Olds” ,namely “old ideas, old customs , old culture , and old habits” . It was also an attack on China’s intellectual elite. The revolution and destruction of the old China were carried out by a mass movement of students and even schoolchildren, with the encouragement of Mao. The student group was called the Red Guards,which were a group of militant students and to attack all traditional values and to publicly criticize party officials .The Gang of Four was composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. They rose to power during the last stage of  Cultural Revolution.The gang’s members included Mao Zedong’s last wife Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. During the Cultural Revolution, the Gang of Four represented the leftist political faction within the CCP. Jiang Qing was the main leader in the Gang of Four. She staged revolutionary operas during the Cultural Revolution and met with the Red Guards. She  continually worked to undermine political rivals, such as launched the ‘Criticise Lin Biao’ propaganda campaign in late 1973, attempting to link the  discredited Lin Biao with the highly popular Zhou Enlai.The Gang of Four, together with the disgraced general Lin Biao who died in 1971, were labeled as the two major “counter-revolutionary forces” of the Cultural Revolution afterwards and were officially blamed by the Chinese government for the societal chaos that occurred during the ten years of turmoil.The courtroom drama played out on TV, with particularly fiery exchanges involving Jiang Qing, who remained defiant even as her former allies denounced he Their downfall on October 6, 1976 brought about major celebrations on the streets of Beijing and marked the end of a turbulent political period in China.Their fall did not amount to a rejection of the Cultural Revolution as such. It was organised by the new leader, Hua Guofeng, and others who had risen during that period. Repudiation of the entire process came later, with the return of Deng Xiaoping and Hua gradual loss of authority. In Winter 1980-1981 the Gang of Four were put on trial. All four were sentenced to prison After Mao’s death, a power struggle broke out at the highest levels of leadership.Mao’s designated successor, Hua Guofeng, took over all the formal roles of leadership, but faced opposition from Mao’s wife Jiang Qing and three of her allies.They were associated with the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, and were quickly arrested and purged.  B)     Quotations of leadersshe asked: “most members of the CCP Central Committee at that time denounced Liu. If I am guilty, why not hold them guilty as well?” This remark irritated the Chief Judge. He ordered Jiang to “shut up!” In response, Jiang shouted “Revolution is glorious! Revolution is no crime!”The ultra-left urged a violent and disruptive campaign summed up by Chiang Ching in the slogan: “To beat, wreck, and loot for Revolution is fine.”Propaganda posters at the time portrayed them as traitors. The most famous featured caricatures of their faces with a red cross through it, stating: “Decisively Throw Out the Wang-Zhang-Jiang-Yao Anti-Party Clique!”It showed that after C)     Transformation of the PRC during and after the event. how it had transformed the country in political, economic, and social aspects with relevant historical factsWith the paticipation of the Gang of Four , it had highly serious consequences for the Chinese system as a whole.In political aspect, during the rise of the Gang of Four, the PRC hadThe most active of the Gang was Jiang Qing, who continually worked to undermine political rivals (she launched the ‘Criticise Lin Biao’ propaganda campaign in late 1973, attempting to link the now-dead and discredited Lin Biao with the highly popular Zhou Enlai). In January 1976 Zhou’s long battle with cancer ended and the Gang of Four made its fatal mistake, forbidding public acts of mourning and tribute for Zhou, and preventing the state-run media from reporting on the people’s grief. The masses were outraged by this and in April ignored the prohibition on public assembly, gathering in enormous numbers in Tiananmen Square with flowers, poems and anti-Gang of Four placards. The Gang’s response was to send in the Beijing police: many were beaten, driven away or shot, while those carrying placards were whisked away to be summarily executed. Deng Xiaoping was linked with the Tiananmen ‘counter-revolutionaries’ and for a second time temporarily removed from office and purged from the CCP. The so-called ‘Tiananmen Incident’ was the Gang of Four’s desperate response to public unrest, however it would soon backfire. When Mao himself died five months after (September 1976) the Gang of Four – with the people, the PLA and others in the Politburo against them – were soon deposed, arrested and charged with crimes against the people.  The purges had reached the level of army generals who dared to speak out against the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, and Red Guards groups were turning against one another and fighting in the streets. Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, encouraged the Red Guards to raid arms from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), and even to replace the army entirely if necessary “Down to the Countryside Movement,”In economic aspect,the rate decreasesIn social aspects, education, social atmosphere, zisilfenziestroyed much of China’s cultural heritage. Historians believe somewhere between 500,000 and two million people lost their lives as a result of the Cultural Revolution. For the entire decade of the Cultural Revolution, schools in China did not operate; this left an entire generation with no formal education. All of the educated and professional people had been targets for re-education. Those that hadn’t been killed were dispersed across the countryside, toiling on farms or working in labor camps. All sorts of antiquities and artifacts were taken from museums and private homes; they were destroyed as symbols of “old thinking.” Priceless historical and religious texts also were burned to ashes.Jiang’s Persecution of Artistshey arrested the actors and threw them in jail.home was searched and their property confiscated or destroyed by “Red Guarders” dispatched by JiangIdeological cleansing began with attacks by young Red Guards on so-called “intellectuals” to remove “bourgeois” influences. It is believed millions were forced into manual labour, and tens of thousands were executed.control of the media. More moderate leaders, however, were developing and promulgating a pragmatic program for rapid modernization of the economy that contradicted the set of policies expressed in the media. Initiatives by Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping were vehemently attacked in the press and in political campaigns as “poisonous weeds.” Using official news organs, the Gang of Four advocated the primacy of nonmaterial, political incentives, radical reduction of income differences, elimination of private farm plots, and a shift of the basic accounting unit up to the brigade level in agriculture. They opposed the strengthening of central planning and denounced the use of foreign technology.gy.


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