A brick wall, the person’s body would keep

A force is a vector quantity that is described as, the result of an object interacting with another object, that creates a push/ pull force. Force is always the product of an interaction, which is measured in Newtons (N). The first person to explain and recognize the laws of motion was Sir Isaac Newton. Newton was a physicist who created three laws that shaped and assisted in the development of the world, which was discovered over 300 years ago. Newton gravitated in the fields of physics and mathematics, and in 1686, he concluded his three laws of motion in the “Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis.” By understanding Newton’s laws of motion, we can come to understand car accidents and how they can be prevented, by virtue of applications (like the seatbelt, airbags, and crumple zones.) Inertia is a law that states that “a body that is in motion continues in motion with the same velocity, and a body at rest continues at rest until an unbalanced force acts upon it”. Inertia is defined as, the property of resisting a change in motion. The study of inertia aided the process of saving lives, due to car crashes, specifically seatbelts. Seatbelts accommodate safety, as they are the outside force that prevents/ slows down one’s own body when the car stops, which lessens the chances of getting hurt and being killed. For example, a car driving at a speed of 80km/ h, if that car was to collide into a brick wall, the person’s body would keep moving at a speed of 80km/h; if a seatbelt (the outside force) was not worn. Cars have become faster over the past century, and as they became faster, sudden stops were jarring. Before seat belts were invented, in the late 19th century, “horseless carriages”, began to appear. Cars had a habit of unexpectedly crashing to a stop; and the driver, an example of inertia, kept on going and would crash into the windshield, or out of the open-roofed cars. And from there the need for seat belts became apparent, because seat belts lock’s one in place when a vehicle comes to an unexpected stop. As one is riding in a car, and suddenly the driver slams on the brakes, without a seat belt, everything in the car that isn’t held down, will fly forward at the same speed the car was traveling. The car may have stopped, but the objects within the car do not; for they continue to move forward until they bump into a different stopping force (ex. the windshield, dashboard, floor, or seat.) With the many advantages that seatbelts accommodate, there are disadvantages; the fibers coming from the seatbelt leads to pain in the chest or abdominal region. Seat Belts are responsible for tearing internal organs, like the diaphragm or colon; these accident- related injuries are described as “seat belt- syndrome”. Another disadvantage seatbelts withhold is, although seat belts provide support, most people crash into the side of the car or the steering wheel (this is where airbags are needed). 40,000 people’s lives are taken yearly due to car accidents, and half of these accidents can be prevented if a seatbelt was worn. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, around 15,000 lives are saved each year (in the US only) due to  drivers and passengers wearing their seatbelts in a road crash. Seatbelts are required as they prevent inertia from allowing the passenger to go through a windshield. What is also required, is a minimization of the force that the passenger has to experience, hence the use of airbags. The intention of airbags is to immediately inflate then deflate in the course of an accident; which reduces force. Airbags are triggered when a radical change occurs (in the car’s momentum) by cause of a powerful force.  Newton’s second law of motion, The Law of Momentum, states that the force of an object relies on its mass and how fast it’s accelerating. It is mathematically represented as F= m x a (force= mass x acceleration). When the acceleration is 0 so is the force. The change in momentum is constant (because the passengers stop), however, the passengers in the car come to a stop by a long duration, due to the airbag  (as the time increases, the force decreases). An example is, a person falling would prefer landing on a pile of leaves than concrete. Since 1997, airbags have been mandatory in all cars, because beforehand riders would crash into dashboards, windows, and steering wheels without forms of prevention. The primary advantage airbags carry are, reducing force moreover protecting a passenger in the case of a car accident. On the other hand, airbags can be hazardous, for if the crash enabled the passenger to hit the airbag in an awkward position, the aftermath would result in concussions, injuries in the chest, and whiplash. In the time period between 1987- 2015, airbags protected 45,000 lives. And each year, around 2500 lives are saved by frontal airbags. “For every reaction, there is an equal and opposite reaction”, is Newton’s third law of motion. This translates into: if object A releases a force on object B, then object B will equally release a force on object A, in the opposite direction. Crumple zones are a prime example of Newton’s third law, aiding us nowadays. Crumples zones are the frontal and rear region of a car, designed to deform and crumple in the event of a collision, and redistribute force before a crash. Keeping passengers safe in the car, simply, is not allowing the whole car to crumble. Engineers and designers have to acknowledge elements, such as the size and weight, stiffness, and the burden that a car has to detain. Consider an example, Car 1 crashing into a similar Car (2) on a highway, Car 1 is traveling at a speed of 100 km/h before the crash, when Car 1 collides into Car 2 (stationary), these are the results:In Car 1 the time taken for the change in velocity to occur would extend if crumple zones were used, because the average force required to stop the car is lessened so the chances of injury are also less. This would harm Car 2 less than the initial reaction, therefore, less force would be delivered amongst the passengers of Car 2. To sum up, crumple zones extend the collision time, which decreases the decelerating force. There are many pros to crumple zones, it primarily enables the crash to be less drastic, because it absorbs energy. On the contrary, crumple zones do not provide full support, because on the occasion that seatbelts were not worn, and the airbags were not working, crumple zones would provide little support. Crumple zones have assisted in globally saving thousands of lives. Self-driving cars are controversial concerning morals, although 90% of all road accidents are because of human mistakes (road rage, drunk driving, texting..etc. ) Removing these mistakes that humans make, saves millions of lives; however, self- driving cars are not capable of making moralistic decisions. For example, if a self- driving car was on the road, and North to the car was a truck, from the truck cargo fell out onto the road. The car wouldn’t be familiar in a given circumstance, and if figured out, would have to make a ruthless decision to turn left (to a motorist with a helmet) or right (a motorist without a helmet), the correct decision cannot be determined by a car and only by the human mind. German scientists are developing a way of allowing self- driving automobiles to communicate, so if put in a scenario like aforementioned, would unify and find a safe way out. Scientists can potentially figure out how to control cars in malfunction situations, in the word of Leon Sütfeld, “It would be rather simple to implement, as technology certainly isn’t the limiting factor here, the question is how we as a society want the cars to handle this kind of situation, and how the laws should be written. What should be allowed and what shouldn’t? In order to come to an informed opinion, it’s certainly very useful to know how humans actually do behave when they’re facing such a decision.”


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