The concept of the “magic bullet” proposed a
century ago by the Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich is turning into realistic with
the approval of several nano-formulations for the treatment of cancer and other
diseases. This approach has provided a platform for the development of various
types of nano-carrier formulations, encapsulating therapeutics and delivering
it to the site of action. Since the first formulation in the form of liposome
was proposed in 1974 by Gregoriadis et al., in recent times there has been
tremendous increase in the number of nano-carriers suitable for targeted drug
delivery, which are either made of lipids or composed of polymers(Gregoriadis et al. 1974, Davis, Chen, and
Shin 2008). These systems are exploited to incorporate
drugs with poor biopharmaceutical profile or systemic toxicity issues.

Nano-carrier system helps in protecting active contituents from degradation,
augment bioavailability by enabling diffusion through epithelium, enhancement of
intracellular penetration and bio-distribution. Nanotechnology based therapy encompasses
elements with therapeutic entities, including proteins, peptides, DNA, RNA,
small molecules and the constituent that are used to assemble the therapeutic
entities, such as lipids and polymers. Such nanoparticles will have enhanced
anticancer activity  as compared to pure
therapeutic entities(Davis, Chen,
and Shin 2008). 

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