The study of evolution, in its most simple form, is
the study of changes in the relative frequencies or proportion and fraction of
alleles in a population. Population genetics plays a large role in evolution as
it relates to the larger picture of evolution. It specifies how species have
risen from others and how speciation occurs.

            The
biological species concept is that Individuals of the same species can
interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring. Therefore, defining a
species is not as straightforward as it would seem to be. In essence, different
species are groups of organisms where genetic exchange does not and cannot
occur. Habitat isolation can lead to speciation is where two or more similar
species live in different habitats so they do not interbreed.  Behavioral isolation can lead to speciation
because differences in mating behavior prevents inter-breeding between
different species. Temporal isolation can lead to speciation which is if 2
populations breed at different times of the day or during different seasons,
then there is no genetic mixing between them and they may become different
species. Mechanical isolation can lead to speciation because different species
may be attracted to each other, but interbreeding is prevented because of differences
in anatomy. (Wright 2005)

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            There
are two modes of speciation. Allopatric speciation due to geographic isolation
which is if two populations, originally the same species, live in separate
geographic locations, then there is no gene flow between them.  Genetic differences will increase over time
until they are considered different species. There is also sympatric speciation
which is when two populations, originally the same species, in the same
geographic location may become reproductively isolated due to “some reason.”
Genetic differences will increase over time until they are considered different
species 

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